Skip to main content

Table 2 Women’s self-reported sexual and reproductive health care needs and service access patterns in the last 12 months, N = 385 (n(%))

From: Women’s costs for accessing comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services: findings from an observational study in Johannesburg, South Africa

 HIV-negative/
status unknown
HIV-positiveTotal
(n = 129)(n = 256)(n = 385)
Required care for at least one SRH problem109 (84.50%)256 (100.0%)365 (94.8%)
Required care for fertility problems4 (3.1%)11 (4.3%)15 (3.9%)
Sought carea4 (100.0%)9 (81.8%)13 (86.7%)
Public facility4 (100.0%)5 (55.6%)9 (69.2%)
Private facility or chemist0 (0.0%)1 (11.1%)1 (7.7%)
Otherb1 (25.0%)4 (44.4%)5 (38.5%)
Needed contraceptionc63 (48.8%)113 (44.1%)176 (45.7%)
Currently using a modern form of contraception56 (88.9%)107 (94.7%)163 (92.6%)
Sought contraception in last 12 months*48 (76.2%)89 (78.8%)137 (77.8%)
Public facility44 (91.7%)60 (67.4%)104 (75.9%)
Private facility or chemist2 (4.2%)15 (16.9%)17 (12.4%)
Otherb2 (4.2%)14 (15.7%)16 (11.7%)
Reported having menstrual problems48 (37.2%)103 (40.2%)151 (39.2%)
Sought carea25 (52.1%)49 (47.6%)74 (49.0%)
Public facility21 (84.0%)37 (75.5%)58 (78.4%)
Private facility or chemist2 (8.0%)9 (18.4%)11 (14.9%)
Otherb2 (8.0%)6 (12.2%)8 (10.8%)
Reported having menopause symptoms12 (9.3%)49 (19.3%)61 (15.9%)
Sought carea5 (41.7%)17 (34.7%)22 (36.1%)
Public facility3 (60.0%)14 (82.4%)17 (77.3%)
Private facility or chemist2 (40.0%)2 (11.8%)4 (18.2%)
Otherb1 (20.0%)1 (5.9%)2 (9.1%)
Eligible for a cervical cancer screend59 (45.7%)256 (100%)315 (81.8%)
Ever had a cervical cancer screen44 (74.6%)211 (82.8%)255 (81.2%)
Sought a cervical cancer screen in last 12 months10 (22.7%)106 (50.2%)116 (45.5%)
Public facility15 (88.2%)105 (99.1%)120 (97.6%)
Private facility or chemist2 (11.8%)0 (0.0%)2 (1.6%)
Otherb0 (0.0%)1 (0.9%)1 (0.8%)
Eligible for a breast cancer screen in last 12 monthse45 (34.9%)181 (70.7%)226 (58.7%)
Ever had a breast cancer screen9 (20.0%)32 (17.7%)41 (18.1%)
Sought a breast cancer screen in last 12 monthsa1 (11.1%)12 (37.5%)13 (31.7%)
Public facility6 (85.7%)17 (94.4%)23 (92.0%)
Private facility or chemist1 (14.3%)1 (5.6%)2 (8.0%)
Otherb0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)
Reported having STI symptoms16 (12.4%)37 (14.6%)53 (13.9%)
Sought carea15 (93.8%)28 (75.7%)43 (81.1%)
Public facility9 (60.0%)24 (85.7%)33 (76.7%)
Private facility or chemist3 (20.0%)3 (10.7%)6 (14.0%)
Otherb3 (20.0%)3 (10.7%)6 (14.0%)
Reported experiencing intimate partner violence11 (8.5%)31 (12.1%)42 (10.9%)
Sought carea4 (36.4%)8 (25.8%)12 (28.6%)
Public facility1 (25.0%)1 (12.5%)2 (16.7%)
Private facility or chemist0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)
Otherb0 (0.0%)2 (25.0%)2 (16.7%)
  1. STI Sexually transmitted illness
  2. aWomen may have obtained care at more than one facility or mode (e.g. public facility, traditional healer, etc)
  3. bOther = traditional healer, family member, friend, other
  4. c Need for contraception was defined as having had sex in the last 12 months, not currently pregnant, not having had tubal ligation or a partner with a vasectomy, not wanting to get pregnant in the next 24 months and not experiencing menopause symptoms
  5. d In South Africa, HIV-negative women are eligible for Pap smears at ages 30, 40, and 50. For this analysis, we considered any HIV-negative woman over age 30 to be eligible. HIV-positive women are eligible for annual Pap smears from the time of their diagnosis
  6. e Breast exams in South Africa are clinical exams. The national policy allows for a screen annually for women over age 35