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Table 3 Among women who received care, women’s costs (2016 USD) (mean (SD)) and assistance for obtaining sexual and reproductive health services in the last 12 months, N = 385

From: Women’s costs for accessing comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services: findings from an observational study in Johannesburg, South Africa

 HIV-negative/
status unknown
HIV-positiveTotal
(n = 129)(n = 256)(n = 385)
Incurred costs for at least one SRH problem98 (76.0%)209 (81.6%)307 (79.7%)
Had fertility problems and tried to seek helpn = 4n = 9n = 13
 Number of visits to facilities5.8 (3.9)1.6 (1.1)2.8 (2.9)
 If employed and sought care, missed work?1 of 2 (50.0%)3 of 8 (37.5%)4 of 10 (40.0%)
 If yes, number of days10 (0)1 (0)3.3 (4.5)
 If yes, lost income$15.62 ($8.73)$15.62 ($8.73)
 If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent18.4 (16.2)4.1 (3.2)8.5 (10.9)
 Value of time spent$18.56 ($16.65)$4.20 ($2.73)$8.62 ($11.04)
 Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred$927.30 ($1294.38)$53.53 ($65.03)$228.28 ($570.24)
 Average total costs for all women with issuea$482.21 ($924.43)$55.25 ($70.81)$186.62 ($508.97)
 Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))0 (0.0%)3 (33.3%)3 (23.1%)
Sought contraception in last 12 monthsn = 48n = 89n = 137
 Number of visits to facilities1.3 (0.8)1.7 (1.6)1.5 (1.4)
 If employed and sought care, missed work?5 of 22 (22.7%)9 of 57 (15.8%)14 of 79 (17.7%)
 If yes, number of days1.2 (0.4)1 (0.0)1.1 (0.3)
 If yes, lost income$7.48 ($1.84)$26.01 ($13.40)$16.75 ($13.29)
 If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent3.3 (3.8)3.9 (10.2)3.6 (8.3)
 Value of time spent$3.21 ($2.62)$5.51 ($16.18)$4.65 ($12.91)
 Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred$8.38 ($14.67)$10.73 ($17.48)$10.14 ($16.72)
 Average total costs for all women with issuea$6.27 ($9.29)$12.44 ($28.13)$10.13 ($23.09)
 Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))4 (8.3%)13 (14.6%)17 (12.4%)
Sought care for menstrual problemsn = 25n = 49n = 74
 Number of visits to facilities1.9 (1.7)2.3 (1.6)2.1 (1.6)
 If employed and sought care, missed work?7 of 18 (38.9%)11 of 27 (40.7%)18 of 45 (40.0%)
 If yes, number of days1.7 (1.0)1.5 (1.3)1.6 (1.1)
  If yes, lost income$16.19 ($13.17)$18.78 ($20.09)$17.48 ($16.07)
 If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent6.9 (9.4)5.9 (7.1)6.2 (7.9)
 Value of time spent$7.45 ($10.53)$8.22 ($10.83)$7.95 ($10.66)
 Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred$56.78 ($85.28)$31.62 ($51.68)$36.76 ($59.75)
 Average total costs for all women with issuea$31.13 ($63.17)$33.59 ($52.62)$32.74 ($56.07)
 Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))4 (16.0%)9 (18.4%)13 (17.6%)
Sought care for menopause symptomsn = 5n = 17n = 22
 Number of visits to facilities3.0 (3.5)1.4 (0.8)1.7 (1.8)
 If employed and sought care, missed work?0 of 3 (0.0%)3 of 8 (37.5%)3 of 11 (27.3%)
 If yes, number of days1.7 (1.2)1.7 (1.2)
 If yes, lost income$19.61 ($14.58)$19.61 ($14.58)
 If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent14.2 (28.1)7.2 (11.7)8.8 (16.2)
 Value of time spent$15.02 ($23.50)$7.90 ($12.16)$9.52 ($15.13)
 Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred$28.25 ($21.81)$21.60 ($36.10)$22.77 ($33.54)
 Average total costs for all women with issuea$31.97 ($26.71)$29.14 ($38.69)$29.77 ($35.74)
 Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))0 (0.0%)5 (29.4%)5 (22.7%)
Sought a cervical cancer screenn = 17n = 106n = 123
 Number of visits to facilities1 (0.0)1.2 (0.5)1.1 (0.4)
 If employed and sought care, missed work?2 of 10 (20.0%)27 of 76 (35.5%)29 of 86 (33.7%)
 If yes, number of days1 (0.0)1.0 (0.2)1.0 (0.2)
 If yes, lost income$10.20 ($0.00)$21.60 ($34.79)$20.72 ($33.45)
 If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent2.9 (2.0)2.1 (1.6)2.2 (1.7)
 Value of time spent$3.89 ($2.81)$3.09 ($4.29)$3.20 ($4.11)
 Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred$84.14 ($128.40)$4.84 ($6.38)$8.81 ($31.10)
 Average total costs for all women with issuea$24.29 ($66.58)$9.06 ($15.76)$11.19 ($28.77)
 Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))1 (5.9%)14 (13.2%)15 (12.2%)
Sought a breast cancer screenn = 7n = 18n = 25
 Number of visits to facilities1.1 (0.4)1.4 (1.2)1.4 (1.0)
 If employed and sought care, missed work?1 of 3 (33.3%)5 of 13 (38.5%)6 of 16 (37.5%)
 If yes, number of days2 (0.0)1 (0.0)1.3 (0.5)
 If yes, lost income$12.24 ($0.00)$65.37 ($92.45)$47.66 ($72.21)
 If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent2.5 (2.2)2.6 (2.6)2.6 (2.4)
 Value of time spent$2.85 ($2.43)$5.58 ($9.29)$4.81 ($8.01)
 Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred$1.09 ($0.19)$6.72 ($7.44)$5.91 ($7.14)
 Average total costs for all women with issuea$4.91 ($4.46)$17.32 ($34.11)$13.85 ($29.35)
 Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))1 (14.3%)2 (11.1%)3 (12.0%)
Sought care for an STIn = 15n = 28n = 43
 Number of visits to facilities1.1 (0.3)1.9 (1.5)1.6 (1.3)
 If employed and sought care, missed work?4 of 7 (57.1%)11 of 21 (52.4%)15 of 28 (53.6%)
 If yes, number of days1.3 (0.5)2.7 (4.0)2.3 (3.4)
 If yes, lost income$13.60 ($6.80)$26.22 ($28.91)$22.01 ($23.95)
 If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent2.3 (1.4)5.1 (6.4)4.1 (5.3)
 Value of time spent$2.12 ($1.50)$6.97 ($11.19)$5.27 ($9.31)
 Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred$18.67 ($16.36)$23.12 ($32.81)$21.82 ($28.69)
 Average total costs for all women with issuea$13.55 ($17.45)$26.62 ($42.22)$22.06 ($35.88)
 Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))2 (13.3%)4 (14.3%)6 (14.0%)
Sought treatment/care for gender-based violencen = 4n = 8n = 12
 Number of visits to facilities3.5 (4.4)2.9 (1.7)3.1 (2.7)
 If employed and sought care, missed work?1 of 1 (100.0%)2 of 5 (40.0%)3 of 6 (50.0%)
 If yes, number of days2.0 (0.0)1.7 (1.2)1.8 (1.0)
 If yes, lost income$12.24 ($0.00)$108.96 ($0.00)$60.60 ($68.39)
 If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent5.0 (6.7)6.2 (7.2)5.8 (6.7)
 Value of time spent$5.36 ($7.60)$36.13 ($84.07)$24.94 ($67.08)
 Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred$4.15 ($0.00)$21.49 ($17.63)$18.02 ($17.13)
 Average total costs for all women with issue*$9.46 ($6.93)$63.97 ($100.99)$44.15 ($83.00)
 Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))1 (25.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (8.3%)
  1. aTotal costs = out-of-pocket expenditure + value of time spent + lost income for all visits for the health problem