# Table 3 Among women who received care, women’s costs (2016 USD) (mean (SD)) and assistance for obtaining sexual and reproductive health services in the last 12 months, N = 385

HIV-negative/
status unknown
HIV-positiveTotal
(n = 129)(n = 256)(n = 385)
Incurred costs for at least one SRH problem98 (76.0%)209 (81.6%)307 (79.7%)
Had fertility problems and tried to seek helpn = 4n = 9n = 13
Number of visits to facilities5.8 (3.9)1.6 (1.1)2.8 (2.9)
If employed and sought care, missed work?1 of 2 (50.0%)3 of 8 (37.5%)4 of 10 (40.0%)
If yes, number of days10 (0)1 (0)3.3 (4.5)
If yes, lost income\$15.62 (\$8.73)\$15.62 (\$8.73)
If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent18.4 (16.2)4.1 (3.2)8.5 (10.9)
Value of time spent\$18.56 (\$16.65)\$4.20 (\$2.73)\$8.62 (\$11.04)
Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred\$927.30 (\$1294.38)\$53.53 (\$65.03)\$228.28 (\$570.24)
Average total costs for all women with issuea\$482.21 (\$924.43)\$55.25 (\$70.81)\$186.62 (\$508.97)
Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))0 (0.0%)3 (33.3%)3 (23.1%)
Sought contraception in last 12 monthsn = 48n = 89n = 137
Number of visits to facilities1.3 (0.8)1.7 (1.6)1.5 (1.4)
If employed and sought care, missed work?5 of 22 (22.7%)9 of 57 (15.8%)14 of 79 (17.7%)
If yes, number of days1.2 (0.4)1 (0.0)1.1 (0.3)
If yes, lost income\$7.48 (\$1.84)\$26.01 (\$13.40)\$16.75 (\$13.29)
If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent3.3 (3.8)3.9 (10.2)3.6 (8.3)
Value of time spent\$3.21 (\$2.62)\$5.51 (\$16.18)\$4.65 (\$12.91)
Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred\$8.38 (\$14.67)\$10.73 (\$17.48)\$10.14 (\$16.72)
Average total costs for all women with issuea\$6.27 (\$9.29)\$12.44 (\$28.13)\$10.13 (\$23.09)
Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))4 (8.3%)13 (14.6%)17 (12.4%)
Sought care for menstrual problemsn = 25n = 49n = 74
Number of visits to facilities1.9 (1.7)2.3 (1.6)2.1 (1.6)
If employed and sought care, missed work?7 of 18 (38.9%)11 of 27 (40.7%)18 of 45 (40.0%)
If yes, number of days1.7 (1.0)1.5 (1.3)1.6 (1.1)
If yes, lost income\$16.19 (\$13.17)\$18.78 (\$20.09)\$17.48 (\$16.07)
If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent6.9 (9.4)5.9 (7.1)6.2 (7.9)
Value of time spent\$7.45 (\$10.53)\$8.22 (\$10.83)\$7.95 (\$10.66)
Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred\$56.78 (\$85.28)\$31.62 (\$51.68)\$36.76 (\$59.75)
Average total costs for all women with issuea\$31.13 (\$63.17)\$33.59 (\$52.62)\$32.74 (\$56.07)
Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))4 (16.0%)9 (18.4%)13 (17.6%)
Sought care for menopause symptomsn = 5n = 17n = 22
Number of visits to facilities3.0 (3.5)1.4 (0.8)1.7 (1.8)
If employed and sought care, missed work?0 of 3 (0.0%)3 of 8 (37.5%)3 of 11 (27.3%)
If yes, number of days1.7 (1.2)1.7 (1.2)
If yes, lost income\$19.61 (\$14.58)\$19.61 (\$14.58)
If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent14.2 (28.1)7.2 (11.7)8.8 (16.2)
Value of time spent\$15.02 (\$23.50)\$7.90 (\$12.16)\$9.52 (\$15.13)
Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred\$28.25 (\$21.81)\$21.60 (\$36.10)\$22.77 (\$33.54)
Average total costs for all women with issuea\$31.97 (\$26.71)\$29.14 (\$38.69)\$29.77 (\$35.74)
Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))0 (0.0%)5 (29.4%)5 (22.7%)
Sought a cervical cancer screenn = 17n = 106n = 123
Number of visits to facilities1 (0.0)1.2 (0.5)1.1 (0.4)
If employed and sought care, missed work?2 of 10 (20.0%)27 of 76 (35.5%)29 of 86 (33.7%)
If yes, number of days1 (0.0)1.0 (0.2)1.0 (0.2)
If yes, lost income\$10.20 (\$0.00)\$21.60 (\$34.79)\$20.72 (\$33.45)
If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent2.9 (2.0)2.1 (1.6)2.2 (1.7)
Value of time spent\$3.89 (\$2.81)\$3.09 (\$4.29)\$3.20 (\$4.11)
Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred\$84.14 (\$128.40)\$4.84 (\$6.38)\$8.81 (\$31.10)
Average total costs for all women with issuea\$24.29 (\$66.58)\$9.06 (\$15.76)\$11.19 (\$28.77)
Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))1 (5.9%)14 (13.2%)15 (12.2%)
Sought a breast cancer screenn = 7n = 18n = 25
Number of visits to facilities1.1 (0.4)1.4 (1.2)1.4 (1.0)
If employed and sought care, missed work?1 of 3 (33.3%)5 of 13 (38.5%)6 of 16 (37.5%)
If yes, number of days2 (0.0)1 (0.0)1.3 (0.5)
If yes, lost income\$12.24 (\$0.00)\$65.37 (\$92.45)\$47.66 (\$72.21)
If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent2.5 (2.2)2.6 (2.6)2.6 (2.4)
Value of time spent\$2.85 (\$2.43)\$5.58 (\$9.29)\$4.81 (\$8.01)
Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred\$1.09 (\$0.19)\$6.72 (\$7.44)\$5.91 (\$7.14)
Average total costs for all women with issuea\$4.91 (\$4.46)\$17.32 (\$34.11)\$13.85 (\$29.35)
Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))1 (14.3%)2 (11.1%)3 (12.0%)
Sought care for an STIn = 15n = 28n = 43
Number of visits to facilities1.1 (0.3)1.9 (1.5)1.6 (1.3)
If employed and sought care, missed work?4 of 7 (57.1%)11 of 21 (52.4%)15 of 28 (53.6%)
If yes, number of days1.3 (0.5)2.7 (4.0)2.3 (3.4)
If yes, lost income\$13.60 (\$6.80)\$26.22 (\$28.91)\$22.01 (\$23.95)
If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent2.3 (1.4)5.1 (6.4)4.1 (5.3)
Value of time spent\$2.12 (\$1.50)\$6.97 (\$11.19)\$5.27 (\$9.31)
Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred\$18.67 (\$16.36)\$23.12 (\$32.81)\$21.82 (\$28.69)
Average total costs for all women with issuea\$13.55 (\$17.45)\$26.62 (\$42.22)\$22.06 (\$35.88)
Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))2 (13.3%)4 (14.3%)6 (14.0%)
Sought treatment/care for gender-based violencen = 4n = 8n = 12
Number of visits to facilities3.5 (4.4)2.9 (1.7)3.1 (2.7)
If employed and sought care, missed work?1 of 1 (100.0%)2 of 5 (40.0%)3 of 6 (50.0%)
If yes, number of days2.0 (0.0)1.7 (1.2)1.8 (1.0)
If yes, lost income\$12.24 (\$0.00)\$108.96 (\$0.00)\$60.60 (\$68.39)
If spent time travelling or waiting, average hours spent5.0 (6.7)6.2 (7.2)5.8 (6.7)
Value of time spent\$5.36 (\$7.60)\$36.13 (\$84.07)\$24.94 (\$67.08)
Average out-of-pocket costs, if incurred\$4.15 (\$0.00)\$21.49 (\$17.63)\$18.02 (\$17.13)
Average total costs for all women with issue*\$9.46 (\$6.93)\$63.97 (\$100.99)\$44.15 (\$83.00)
Received financial help to obtain care (n (%))1 (25.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (8.3%)
1. aTotal costs = out-of-pocket expenditure + value of time spent + lost income for all visits for the health problem