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Table 4 Total estimated costs (2016 USD) per cohort and per woman for accessing needed sexual and reproductive health services over 12 months, N = 385

From: Women’s costs for accessing comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services: findings from an observational study in Johannesburg, South Africa

 2016 USD
Total annual cost to study cohort for accessing services as reported$10,911.77
Cost per woman (mean (SD))$28.34 ($113.95)
HIV-positive$26.07 ($54.66)
HIV-negative/status unknowna$32.84 ($181.58)
Women aged 35 or older$37.45 ($145.17)
Total annual cost to study cohort for accessing services to meet all needs$18,912.95
Cost per woman (mean (SD))$52.65 ($118.63)
HIV-positive$52.38 ($64.83)
HIV-negative/status unknownb$53.20 ($183.97)
Women aged 35 or older$62.80 ($148.43)
  1. aThe average annual cost for HIV-negative women was skewed by spending by one woman. When that outlier was removed from the data, the average annual cost for HIV-negative women dropped to $18.22 ($46.11)
  2. bRemoving the outlier, the average annual cost for HIV-negative women to meet all needs dropped to $38.25 ($53.33)