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Table 2 Obstetric and behavioral characteristics of study participants included in Gondar town, Ethiopia, 2018

From: Causal mechanisms of postnatal depression among women in Gondar town, Ethiopia: application of a stress-process model with generalized structural equation modeling

Variable/categoryPostnatal depressionTotal
n = 895, n (%)
p-value
Yes
(n = 83), n (%)
No
(n = 772), n (%)
Pregnancy intention   0.122
 Planned66 (79.5)697 (85.8)812 (85.2) 
 Unplanned17 (20.5)115 (14.2)83 (14.8) 
Parity of the mother   0.88
 131 (37.4)310 (38.2)341 (38.1) 
 225 (30.1)259 (31.9)284 (31.7) 
 3–827 (32.5)243 (29.9)270 (30.2) 
 Mean (±SD)2.2 (1.2)2.1 (1.2)2.1 (1.2) 
Antenatal care service uptake (at least one) 0.78
 Yes79 (95.2)778 (95.8)857 (95.7) 
 No4 (4.8)34 (4.2)38 (4.3) 
Postnatal care service   0.036
 Yes48 (64.9)624 (77.6)672 (76.5) 
 No26 (35.1)180 (22.4)206 (23.5) 
Mode of delivery   0.58
 Vaginal63 (86.3)675 (83.8)738 (84.0) 
 Cesarean section10 (13.7)130 (16.2)140 (16.0) 
History of a self-reported labor complication < 0.001
 Yes64 (77.1)751 (92.6)815 (91.2) 
 No19 (22.9)60 (7.4)79 (8.8) 
Early initiation of breastfeeding (BF)   0.183
 Yes (≤ one hour)49 (68.1)484 (60.0)533 (60.7) 
 No23 (31.9)322 (40.0)345 (39.3) 
Median hours at first initiation of BF (Median(±IQR))1 (1–6)1 (1–30)1 (1–30) 
History of low birth weight   < 0.001
 Yes66 (79.5)30 (3.7)47 (5.3) 
 No17 (20.5)782 (96.3)848 (94.7) 
Postnatal nutritional status (MUAC)   0.95
 Underweight (18–22)7 (8.4)70 (8.6)77 (8.6) 
 Normal (22.5–31)76 (91.6)742 (91.4)818 (91.4) 
 MUAC (Mean(±SD))83 (0.08)812 (0.07)895 (0.09) 
History of preterm Birth   0.671
 Yes68 (81.9)132 (16.3)147 (16.4) 
 No15 (18.1)680 (83.7)748 (83.6) 
History of stillbirth   < 0.001
 Yes10 (12.1)7 (0.9)17 (1.9) 
 No73 (87.9)805 (99.1)878 (98.1) 
  1. Note: p-value was based on chi-square test statistics