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Table 5 Direct, Indirect and total effect of stressors and mediators on postnatal depression among study participants (N = 895), Gondar town, Ethiopia, 2018

From: Causal mechanisms of postnatal depression among women in Gondar town, Ethiopia: application of a stress-process model with generalized structural equation modeling

Risk factorsDirect effect
β, SE
Indirect effect
β, SE
Total effect
β, SE
Antenatal depression
 Yes0.29 (0.062) **0.07 (0.036) *0.36 (0.053) **
 Noreference  
Low birth weight
 Yes0.32 (0.064) ** 0.32 (0.064) **
 Noreference  
Self-reported labor complication
 Yes0.09 (0.37) *−0.004 (0.016)0.087 (0.043) *
 Noreference  
Postnatal care service
 Yes−0.03 (0.089) −0.03 (0.089)
 Noreference  
History of CMD before pregnancy  
 Yes0.06 (0.032) *0.05 (0.02) **0.11 (0.03) **
 Noreference  
  1. ** ≤ 0.001, * < 0.01. All β coefficients are standardized estimates