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Table 2 Overall effect sizes per outcome

From: Psychosocial interventions targeting mental health in pregnant adolescents and adolescent parents: a systematic review

  All time points
Effect size p-value 95% Confidence Intervals Heterogeneity (I2)
Positive mental health (n = 9) 0.35 0.01** 0.10 0.61 75%***
Mental disorders (depression and anxiety; n = 12) −0.11 0.21 −0.30 0.08 59%**
Self-harm and suicide (n = 0)      
Aggressive, disruptive and oppositional disorders (n = 0)      
Substance use (n = 3) −0.27 0.26 −1.10 0.56 61%*
Risky sexual and reproductive health behaviors (n = 2) −0.17 0.56 −2.68 2.35 60%
School attendance (n = 2) 0.64 0.01** 0.55 0.72 0%
Adherence to antenatal and postnatal care (n = 2) 0.31 0.53 −4.04 4.66 35%
Parenting skills (n = 8) 0.07 0.47 −0.16 0.30 71%**
Exposure to IPV (n = 0)      
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. Models in italics are indicative only, given the statistical estimation procedures used. For positive mental health, school attendance, adherence to antenatal and postnatal care, and parenting skills, a positive effect size denotes a beneficial effect. For all other outcomes, a negative effect size denotes a beneficial effect