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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies and quality assessment

From: Women’s, partners’ and healthcare providers’ views and experiences of assisted vaginal birth: a systematic mixed methods review

Author & date Resource setting Country Participants Number of participants Study Design Methods Quality Assessment
Alexander 2002 [34] HIC UK Midwives 18 Mixed-method Focus group and postal survey A
Al-Mufti 1997 [35] HIC UK Obstetricians 206 Quantitative Postal survey C
Avasarala 2009 [36] HIC UK Postnatal mothers 58 Quantitative Postal survey with free-text responses C
Bailey 2017 [12] LMIC Up to 40 LMICs Facility level data Unclear Quantitative Descriptive secondary data analysis B
Belanger-Levesque 2014 [37] HIC Canada Postnatal mothers and fathers 400 Quantitative In-patient survey B
Chan 2002 [38] HIC UK Postnatal mothers and fathers 226 Quantitative In-patient survey B-
Crosby 2017 [39] HIC Ireland, Canada Obstetricians in training (qualified doctors registered as specialist trainees) 52 Quantitative Online survey C
Declercq 2008 [40] HIC USA Postnatal mothers 1573 Quantitative Telephone and on-line survey A-
Fauveau 2006 [41] LMIC 111 LMICs Obstetricians, Midwives and Public Health specialists Unclear Quantitative Face-to-face survey C-
Fisher 1997 [42] HIC Australia Primigravid women recruited during pregnancy with postnatal follow-up 272 Quantitative Face-to-face survey B-
Garcia 1985 [43] HIC UK Postnatal mothers, Obstetricians, Paediatricians, and midwives 135 Quantitative Face-to-face (women) and postal survey (staff) C
aGoldbort 2009 [33] HIC USA Postnatal women 10 Qualitative Semi-structured interviews C
Handelzalts 2017 [44] HIC Israel Postnatal women 469 Quantitative Self-complete survey C
Healy 1985 [45] HIC USA, Canada Obstetricians (Association Chairs and Training Programme Supervisors) 108 Quantitative Postal survey B-
Hildingsson 2013 [28] HIC Sweden Primigravid and multiparous women recruited during pregnancy with postnatal follow-up 1763 Quantitative Postal survey B
Hewson 1985 [46] HIC Australia Postnatal women 398 Quantitative Face-to-face survey B-
aHurrell 2006 [26] HIC UK Postnatal mothers and fathers 20 Qualitative Semi-structured interviews A-
Kjerulff 2018 [47] HIC USA Primigravid women recruited during pregnancy with postnatal follow-up 3080 Quantitative Face-to-face survey A
Maaløe 2012 [66] LMIC Tanzania Facility level data and eight staff (Nurse Midwives and Medical Officers) 152 Quantitative Secondary data analysis and in-depth interviews A-
Maclean 2000 [48] HIC England Postnatal primiparous women 40 Quantitative Postal survey C+
Murphy 2003 [23] HIC UK Postnatal women 27 Qualitative Semi-structured interviews B
Nolens 2018 [49] LMIC Uganda Postnatal women 646 Quantitative Face-to-face survey B
Nolens 2019 [2, 29] LMIC Uganda Postnatal women 759 Quantitative Face-to-face survey with open responses B+
Nystedt 2006 [32] HIC Sweden Primiparous women 10 Qualitative Semi-structured interviews B
Ramphul 2012 [50] HIC UK& Ireland Obstetricians (Labour ward leads and specialist trainees) 323 Quantitative Postal survey A-
Ranta 1995 [51] HIC Finland Primigravid and multiparous women recruited during pregnancy with postnatal follow-up 1091 Quantitative Self-complete survey and secondary data C
Renner 2007 [52] HIC USA Postnatal women 80 Quantitative Self-complete survey B+
Rijnders 2008 [53] HIC Netherlands Postnatal women 1309 Quantitative Postal survey B
Rowlands 2012 [54] HIC England Postnatal women 5332 Quantitative Secondary analysis of national postal survey B
Ryding 1998 [55] HIC Sweden Postnatal women 326 Quantitative Postal questionnaires B
Salmon 1992 [56] HIC England Primigravid women recruited during pregnancy with postnatal follow-up 110 Quantitative Self-complete survey and secondary data C
Sánchez Del Hierro 2014 [57] LMIC Ecuador Medical graduates 90 Quantitative Online survey A
Schwappach 2004 [58] HIC Switzerland Postnatal women 2079 Quantitative Self-complete survey and secondary data A
Shaaban 2012 [59] LMIC Egypt Obstetricians (Consultants, specialists, registrars) 167 Quantitative Self-complete survey B-
Shorten 2012 [60] HIC Australia Postnatal women 165 Quantitative Self-complete survey B
aSjodin 2018 [30] HIC Sweden Postnatal women 16 Qualitative Semi-structured interviews B
Uotila 2005 [61] HIC Finland Postnatal women 205 Quantitative Self-complete survey B
Waldenström 1999 [62] HIC Sweden Primigravid and multiparous women recruited during pregnancy with postnatal follow-up 1111 Quantitative Self-complete survey A-
Wiklund 2008 [63] HIC Sweden Primigravid women recruited during pregnancy with postnatal follow-up 496 Quantitative Self-complete survey C
Wilson 2002 [64] HIC UK Facility level data and five staff (Medical Director/Senior Obstetrician, Manager, Paediatrician, Midwife and middle-grade Obstetrician) from each of 20 hospitals 1100 Quantitative Secondary data analysis and structured interview A
Wright 2001 [65] HIC UK Obstetricians in training (qualified doctors registered as specialist trainees) 279 Quantitative Postal questionnaire A-
Zwedberg 2015 [31] HIC Sweden Postnatal fathers 10 Qualitative Semi-structured interviews B
  1. aThree PhDs were identified; two of which had published papers. These two papers and the third PhD (unpublished) were included