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Table 1 Summary of main development issues, national policies and strategies and barriers pre-MDG and within the MDG period

From: The moral and social narratives of sexual and reproductive health in Kenya: a case of adolescents and young people pre- and within the MDG era

PeriodMain Development issuesKenya National Policies/StrategiesMain barriers/enablers to AYSRH
Pre-MDG
(Earlier to 2000)
High population growth;
High fertility;
Family planning for married couples
Family Planning Programme, 1967National Population and Development Policy, 1984National Guidelines for Family Planning, 1984National AIDS and STIs Control Programme, 1987Center for the Study of Adolescents, 1988Return to school Policy, 1994Kenya Health Policy Framework (KHPF 1994–2010)National Reproductive Health Strategy (1997–2010)National Population policy for Sustainable Development, 1999National AIDS Control Council established, 1999Kenya National Population Policy for Sustainable Development, Sessional Paper No.1, 2000Strong traditional political influence and policies;
Male hegemony; Sociocultural norms and beliefs;
Religious ideology
Early to Mid-MDG
(2001–2009)
HIV/AIDSThe National HIV/AIDS Strategic plan, 2000–2005
Condom policy strategy, 2001–2005
Kenya Children’s Act, 2001Adolescent Reproductive Health & Development Policy, 2003Education re-entry policy, 2003The Persons With Disabilities Act, 2003Policy on HIV in the Education Sector, 2004National Guidelines for Provision of Youth-Friendly Services, 2005Kenya HIV & AIDS Prevention and Control Act, 2006
Sexual Offences Act, 2006National Youth Policy, 2006National Reproductive Health Policy: Enhancing Reproductive Health Status for All Kenyans, 2007Gender Policy in Education, 2008Kenya Vision 2030, most notably the First Medium Term Plan, 2008–2012National HIV/AIDS Policy, 2009National Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS integration strategy, 2009National Condom Policy and Strategy, 2009–2014
Strong political influence;
Male hegemony; Sociocultural norms and beliefs;
Religious ideology; Medical narrative; Evolution of civil society advocacy and influence
Late MDG
(2010–2015)
Sustained high teenage pregnancy;
Early marriage;
Youthful population
The Constitution of Kenya (revised), 2010Reproductive Health Communication Strategy, 2010–2012
Kenya National School Health Strategy, 2010–2015
Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act, 2011
Gender Policy, 2011National Communication Strategy for Community Health Services, 2012–2017
Sessional Paper No.3 on Population Policy for National Development, 2012Population Policy for National Development, 2012–2030
Education Sector Policy on HIV and AIDS, 2013- revised to align with the revised constitution and vision 2030National Gender-Based Violence, 2014
The Marriage Act, 2014Revised Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Policy, 2015
Strong political will and commitment; Progressive policies; Resource allocation, SRH rights narrative; civil society voice and influence;
Male hegemony; Sociocultural norms and beliefs;
Religious ideology