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Table 2 Description of the lifestyle characteristics and their association with low birth weight

From: Association between maternal lifestyle factors and low birth weight in preterm and term births: a case-control study

Variable Reference Total
(n = 1964)
Normal birth weight
(n = 1381)
Preterm low birth weight
(n = 294)
Term low birth weight
(n = 289)
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Passive smoking No 1289 (65.6) 924 (66.9) 187 (63.6) 178 (61.6)
Yes 675 (34.4) 457 (33.1) 107 (36.4) 111 (38.4) **
Drinking No 1925 (98.0) 1359 (98.4) 286 (97.3) 280 (96.9)
Yes 39 (2.0) 22 (1.6) 8 (2.7) 9 (3.1) *
Coffee or tea consumption (/week) No 1667 (84.9) 1156 (83.7) 260 (88.4) 251 (86.9)
1–3 257 (13.1) 194 (14.0) 30 (10.2) 33 (11.4)
≥4 40 (2.0) 31 (2.2) 4 (1.4) 5 (1.7)
Physical activity (/week) No 419 (21.3) 271 (19.6) 82 (27.9) 66 (22.8)
1–3 672 (34.2) 476 (34.5) 95 (32.3) ** 101 (34.9)
≥4 873 (44.5) 634 (45.9) 117 (39.8) ** 122 (42.2)
Gestational gain Normal 770 (39.2) 570 (41.3) 86 (29.3) 114 (39.4)
Less 721 (36.7) 428 (31.0) 151 (51.4) ** 142 (49.1) **
More 473 (24.1) 383 (27.7) 57 (19.4) 33 (11.4) **
  1. Note: In the analysis, the preterm and term LBW groups were compared with the normal weight group;
  2. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05