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Table 4 Multivariate analysis of clinic, couple and individual-level factors associated with LARC uptake after the intervention

From: Uptake of long acting reversible contraception following integrated couples HIV and fertility goal-based family planning counselling in Catholic and non-Catholic, urban and rural government health centers in Kigali, Rwanda

  Bivariate models Final multivariate model
  95% CI    95% CI  
cORa LLb ULc p-value aORd LLb ULc p-value
Clinic Location*Clinic Religion         
 Non-Catholic vs Catholic in Urban Clinics 8.26 4.86 14.04 < 0.0001 4.16 2.34 7.39 < 0.0001
 Non-Catholic vs Catholic in Rural Clinics 2.22 1.58 3.11 < 0.0001 1.47 1.01 2.16 0.0447
 Urban vs Rural in Non-Catholic Clinics 5.62 3.28 9.63 < 0.0001 2.84 1.58 5.11 0.0005
 Urban vs Rural in Catholic Clinics 1.51 1.09 2.09 0.0128 1.01 0.70 1.46 0.9666
Couple HIV Status
 M-F- ref     
 M + F+ 0.84 0.58 1.22 0.3602     
 M + F- 0.48 0.33 0.68 < 0.0001     
 M-F+ 0.74 0.51 1.06 0.1017     
Man on ARV
 Yes 1.63 1.27 2.10 0.0001     
 No ref     
Man Age (per one year increase) 0.97 0.96 0.98 < 0.0001 0.97 0.95 0.99 0.0011
Woman Age (per one year increase) 0.97 0.95 1.00 0.0242     
Cohabitation (per one year increase) 0.95 0.92 0.97 < 0.0001     
Man’s Years in Kigali (per one year increase) 0.98 0.97 0.99 < 0.0001     
Woman’s Years in Kigali per one year increase) 0.98 0.97 0.99 0.0018     
Number of Biological Children (per each child increase) 0.89 0.82 0.98 0.0123     
Number of Children in Household (per each child increase) 0.87 0.81 0.94 0.0005     
Man’s Highest Education Completed
 None 1.64 1.25 2.14 0.0004 1.39 1.01 1.90 0.0451
 Primary/Secondary/Higher ref     
Woman’s Highest Education Completed
 None 1.35 1.04 1.75 0.0228 1.53 1.13 2.08 0.0067
 Primary/Secondary/Higher ref     
Man Reads Kinyarwanda
 Easily/With Difficulty ref     
 Not at all 1.49 1.08 2.06 0.0149     
Man Reads French
 Easily/With Difficulty ref     
 Not at all 1.57 1.13 2.17 0.0069     
Couple Religion
 Both Catholic/Other 1.92 1.42 2.59 < 0.0001 1.53 1.09 2.16 0.0152
 Woman Catholic/Other, Man Pentecostal/Seven Day Adventist/Jehovah’s Witnesses/Anglican/Baptist/Muslim/No religion 2.46 1.44 4.20 0.001 2.05 1.13 3.74 0.0190
 Man Catholic/Other, Woman Pentecostal/Seven Day Adventist/Jehovah’s Witnesses/Anglican/Baptist/Muslim/No religion 1.54 1.07 2.22 0.0205 1.40 0.92 2.13 0.1212
 Both Pentecostal/Seven Day Adventist/Jehovah’s Witnesses/Anglican/Baptist/Muslim/No religion ref     
Man frequency of attending religious services
 Once a week or less often 1.75 1.31 2.34 0.0001     
 More than once a week ref     
Woman frequency of attending religious services
 Once a week or less often 1.73 1.33 2.52 < 0.0001     
 More than once a week ref     
Plan to have more children together
 Yes/unsure 1.33 1.03 1.7 0.0285     
 No ref     
Contraceptive on day of enrollment
 Injectable 0.45 0.3 0.66 < 0.0001 0.55 0.35 0.87 0.0096
 Condoms 0.53 0.37 0.76 0.0005 0.59 0.39 0.89 0.0113
 OCP 0.91 0.49 1.67 0.7601 1.21 0.61 2.40 0.5935
Other/None ref     
Couple previously discussed IUD and/or implant
 Yes 11.85 8.28 16.95 < 0.0001 7.59 5.18 11.13 < 0.0001
 No ref     
Man heard of implant and concerned about side effects
 No 1.62 1.16 2.26 0.0042     
 Yes ref     
Woman heard of implant and concerned about negative side effects
 No 2.05 1.55 2.72 < 0.0001 1.49 1.07 2.07 0.0193
 Yes ref     
Woman heard of IUD and concerned about negative side effects
 No 1.63 1.15 2.31 0.0059     
 Yes ref     
  1. The following variables were not significant in bivariate analyses and are not tabled: woman HIV+ or on ARV, man wants more children, woman wants more children, woman previously used IUD, woman previously used implant, preferred timing of last pregnancy, man concerned about negative side effects of IUD
  2. aCrude odds ratio
  3. bLower limit for 95% confidence interval (CI)
  4. cUpper limit for 95% confidence interval (CI)
  5. dAdjusted odds ratio