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Table 3 Antenatal and delivery characteristics by maternal status at 42 days after delivery, 2010–2018 all clusters

From: Maternal mortality in six low and lower-middle income countries from 2010 to 2018: risk factors and trends

Characteristica N(%) by maternal status Total Risk Ratio(95% CI)b
  Women who died Women alive six weeks after delivery   
Deliveries, N 842 570,479 571,321  
No antenatal care (vs. any antenatal care) 62/834 (7.4) 20,426/570,105 (3.6) 20,488/570,939 (3.6) 1.6 (1.1, 2.4)
Fewer than 4 antenatal care visits (vs. > 4 visits) 339/605 (56.0) 201,105/447,076 (45.0) 201,444/447,681 (45.0) 1.3 (1.1, 1.7)
Birth attendant 620 570,351 570,971  
 Physician 291 (46.9) 203,294 (35.6) 203,585 (35.7) 1.0
 Nurse/Midwife/Health worker 131 (21.1) 203,325 (35.6) 203,456 (35.6) 0.4 (0.3, 0.5)
 Traditional birth attendant 134 (21.6) 119,738 (21.0) 119,872 (21.0) 0.5 (0.4, 0.7)
 Family/Self/Other 64 (10.3) 43,994 (7.7) 44,058 (7.7) 0.8 (0.6, 1.0)
Delivery location 623 570,402 571,025  
 Hospital 335 (53.8) 244,926 (42.9) 245,261 (43.0) 1.0
 Clinic/health center 113 (18.1) 170,980 (30.0) 171,093 (30.0) 0.4 (0.3, 0.5)
 Home/other 175 (28.1) 154,496 (27.1) 154,671 (27.1) 0.6 (0.5, 0.8)
Delivery mode 612 545,759 546,371  
 Vaginal 424 (69.3) 466,355 (85.5) 466,779 (85.4) 1.0
 Vaginal assisted 19 (3.1) 5364 (1.0) 5383 (1.0) 3.3 (1.7, 6.5)
 Caesarean section 169 (27.6) 74,040 (13.6) 74,209 (13.6) 2.7 (2.3, 3.3)
Obstructed labor 148/697 (21.2) 44,947/569,869 (7.9) 45,095/570,566 (7.9) 3.0 (2.3, 3.9)
Fetal Malpresentation 45/692 (6.5) 11,253/569,773 (2.0) 11,298/570,465 (2.0) 3.3 (2.4, 4.4)
Severe antepartum hemorrhage 71/695 (10.2) 8783/569,937 (1.5) 8854/570,632 (1.6) 6.7 (5.0, 9.0)
Hypertensive disorders 156/688 (22.7) 14,650/569,679 (2.6) 14,806/570,367 (2.6) 10.6 (8.5, 13.2)
Maternal treatment provided
 Maternal antibiotics 350/559 (62.6) 229,932/464,473 (49.5) 230,282/465,032 (49.5) 2.3 (1.8, 2.9)
 Corticosteroids 43/439 (9.8) 10,225/413,905 (2.5) 10,268/414,344 (2.5) 4.0 (2.8, 5.9)
 Oxytocics (including Misoprostol) 344/556 (61.9) 308,315/463,555 (66.5) 308,659/464,111 (66.5) 0.9 (0.7, 1.1)
 Blood transfusion 186/560 (33.2) 9789/464,309 (2.1) 9975/464,869 (2.1) 20.9 (16.0, 27.2)
 Removal of retained products 45/558 (8.1) 20,750/464,252 (4.5) 20,795/464,810 (4.5) 2.1 (1.4, 3.1)
 Anticonvulsants/Magnesium sulfate 60/553 (10.8) 5692/464,277 (1.2) 5752/464,830 (1.2) 9.8 (7.2, 13.4)
 V Fluids 182/258 (70.5) 90,672/173,017 (52.4) 90,854/173,275 (52.4) 2.4 (1.7, 3.4)
 Forceps/vacuum 13/254 (5.1) 1908/172,354 (1.1) 1921/172,608 (1.1) 4.3 (2.4, 7.7)
 Other surgery/treatment 22/255 (8.6) 9830/172,810 (5.7) 9852/173,065 (5.7) 1.7 (1.1, 2.7)
  1. a The denominator used to determine the percentage of women with each characteristic varies due to missing data
  2. b Risk ratios were generated from models evaluating the outcome of women who died vs women who were alive six weeks after delivery. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship of potential factors and maternal mortality and to develop point and interval estimates of relative risk associated with these factors. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster to develop appropriate confidence intervals. Unless otherwise noted, the reference group is women who did not have the listed characteristic