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Table 4 Multivariable model of maternal status at 42 days after delivery controlling for site, maternal, antenatal and delivery characteristics, 2010–2018 all clusters

From: Maternal mortality in six low and lower-middle income countries from 2010 to 2018: risk factors and trends

Characteristic Overall p-valuea Risk Ratio (95% CI)a
Maternal age 0.0017  
 < 20   0.64 (0.45, 0.89)
 20–35   1.0
 > 35   1.43 (1.06, 1.92)
Maternal education <.0001  
 No formal education   3.40 (2.08, 5.55)
 Primary/Secondary   2.46 (1.54, 3.94)
 University +   1.0
Parity 0.0031  
 0   1.24 (1.01, 1.52)
 1–2   1.0
 > 2   1.48 (1.15, 1.89)
At least one antenatal care visit 0.1707 1.22 (0.92, 1.61)
Birth attendant <.0001  
 Physician   1.0
 Nurse/Midwife/Health worker   0.61 (0.45, 0.84)
 Traditional birth attendant   0.74 (0.50, 1.10)
 Family/Self/Other   1.38 (0.91, 2.09)
Delivery location <.0001  
 Hospital   1.0
 Clinic/health center   0.57 (0.44, 0.75)
 Home/other   0.89 (0.62, 1.28)
Delivery mode 0.0048  
 Vaginal   1.0
 Vaginal assisted   1.58 (0.80, 3.12)
 Caesarean section   1.60 (1.21, 2.13)
Obstructed labor 0.0062 1.58 (1.14, 2.19)
Fetal Malpresentation 0.1140 1.30 (0.94, 1.79)
Severe antepartum hemorrhage <.0001 2.59 (1.83, 3.66)
Hypertensive disorders <.0001 6.87 (5.05, 9.34)
  1. a A generalized linear model was used to evaluate the relationship of potential factors and maternal mortality and to develop point and interval estimates of relative risk associated with these factors after controlling for site and all other listed characteristics. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster to develop appropriate confidence intervals. Unless otherwise noted, the reference group is women who did not have the listed characteristic