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Table 5 Relative risk of neonatal death (< 28 day) by Global Network region and delivery characteristics for infants born alive and ≥ 2500 g, 2010–2018

From: Neonatal deaths in infants born weighing ≥ 2500 g in low and middle-income countries

  Adjusted RR for Neonatal Mortality for infants ≥ 2500 g (95% CI)a
Africa South Asia Central America
Zambia/Kenya DRC India Pakistan Guatemala
Delivery Location      
 Hospital Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Clinic/Health Center 0.58 (0.38, 0.89) 0.43 (0.29, 0.64) 0.80 (0.71, 0.91) 0.95 (0.81, 1.11) 0.84 (0.51, 1.39)
 Home/Other 0.66 (0.40, 1.09) 0.49 (0.32, 0.75) 1.35 (1.04, 1.76) 0.69 (0.61, 0.79) 1.07 (0.93, 1.24)
Delivery Mode      
 Vaginal delivery Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Assisted vacuum/forceps 4.50 (2.69, 7.53) 9.01 (3.15, 25.75) 4.82 (3.28, 7.07) 1.83 (1.53, 2.20) 2.38 (0.30, 19.11)
 C-section 4.32 (3.36, 5.55) 6.98 (4.16, 11.70) 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) 1.32 (1.14, 1.52) 1.08 (0.95, 1.22)
Obstructed/prolonged labor/failure to progress 7.04 (5.48, 9.04) 15.49 (11.19, 21.44) 2.89 (2.23, 3.73) 2.71 (2.36, 3.10) 2.40 (2.09, 2.75)
Severe antepartum hemorrhage 4.80 (3.03, 7.61) 16.30 (8.70, 30.54) 4.23 (2.75, 6.52) 3.46 (2.89, 4.15) 1.90 (0.95, 3.79)
Severe postpartum hemorrhage 3.24 (2.41, 4.34) 6.94 (4.07, 11.84) 2.83 (1.78, 4.52) 2.05 (1.79, 2.34) 1.62 (1.14, 2.30)
Severe infectionb 9.88 (6.13, 15.93) 12.07 (7.00, 20.80) 3.28 (1.32, 8.14) 2.99 (2.09, 4.28) 1.72 (0.91, 3.25)
Unplanned hospitalizationb 8.56 (6.30, 11.63) 6.90 (4.24, 11.24) 2.85 (2.22, 3.66) 3.76 (2.00, 7.07) 2.84 (2.35, 3.44)
Abnormal fetal presentation 6.01 (4.69, 7.69) 8.12 (3.47, 19.01) 1.73 (1.30, 2.31) 2.74 (2.32, 3.23) 2.43 (1.72, 3.43)
  1. aRelative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals from log-binomial models with generalized estimating equations to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster. Neonatal mortality is modeled for each factor independently, accounting for site and the interaction of factor and site. Presented RR (95% CI) are for the interaction of factor and site to capture site-specific RRs