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Table 3 Results of binary logistic regression analysis of the influence of socio-economic status and other socio-demographic characteristics on FGM

From: Socio-economic and demographic determinants of female genital mutilation in sub-Saharan Africa: analysis of data from demographic and health surveys

Variables FGM among women FGM among daughters
Model I
AOR (95%CI)
Model I
AOR (95%CI)
Socio-economic variables   
 Wealth quintile   
  Poorest Ref Ref
  Poorer 0.76*** (0.72–0.79) 0.81*** (0.76–0.85)
  Middle 0.74***(0.70–0.77) 0.79***(0.75–0.84)
  Richer 0.65***(0.62–0.69) 0.76***(0.71–0.80)
  Richest 0.51***(0.48–0.55) 0.64***(0.59–0.70)
 Education   
  No education Ref Ref
  Primary 0.80***(0.77–0.84) 0.57***(0.53–0.60)
  Secondary 0.77***(0.73–0.80) 0.61***(0.56–0.65)
  Higher 0.62***(0.57–0.68) 0.32***(0.24–0.38)
Socio-demographic variables   
 Age   
  15–19 Ref Ref
  20–24 1.11***(1.06–1.17) 3.24***(2.78–3.75)
  25–29 1.21***(1.14–1.28) 5.76***(4.98–6.66)
  30–34 1.34***(1.26–1.42) 9.49***(8.20–10.97)
  35–39 1.48***(1.39–1.58) 11.83***(10.23–13.69)
  40–44 1.60***(1.50–1.71) 12.41***(10.71–14.39)
  45–49 1.85***(1.73–1.99) 12.61***(10.86–14.64)
 Residence   
  Urban Ref Ref
  Rural 0.81***(0.78–0.84) 1.09**(1.03–1.15)
 Marital status   
  Single Ref Ref
  Married 1.67***(1.59–1.75) 8.24***(6.88–9.87)
  Cohabitation 1.06 (0.97–1.15) 3.24***(2.78–4.49)
  Widowed/divorced/separated 1.50***(1.40–1.61) 5.81***(4.78–7.05)
 Occupation   
  Not working Ref Ref
  Managerial 1.13**(1.04–0.23) 1.09(0.93–1.27)
  Clerical 0.97(0.83–1.13) 0.83(0.62–1.11)
  Sales 1.07**(1.03–1.12) 1.02(0.99–1.08)
  Agricultural 1.24***(1.19–1.29) 0.99(0.93–1.08)
  Household 084***0.78–0.92) 0.65***(0.53–0.81)
  Services 0.96(0.89–1.03) 0.85**(0.77–0.95)
  Manual 1.11***(1.04–1.17) 1.09* (1.02–1.18)
  Other 0.91(0.74–1.12) 0.61*(0.42–0.90)
 Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine  
  Not at all Ref Ref
  Less than a week 0.83***(0.79–0.88) 0.72***(0.64–0.81)
  At least once a week 0.66***(0.62–0.70) 0.61*** (0.52–0.71)
 Frequency of listening to radio   
  Not at all Ref Ref
  Less than once a week 1.01(0.96–1.05) 1.00(0.95–1.06)
  At least once a week 0.92***(0.88–0.95) 0.99(0.94–1.04)
 Frequency of watching television   
  Not at all Ref Ref
  Less than once a week 1.02(0.97–1.07) 0.93*(0.87–0.99)
  At least once a week 0.94*(0.90–0.99) 0.81***(0.75–0.86)
 Survey country   
  Burkina Faso Ref Ref
  Ethiopia 0.89***(0.83–0.95) 2.06***(1.87–2.26)
  Guinea 8.51***(7.64–9.49) 4.20***(3.90–4.52)
  Kenya 0.17***(0.16–0.18) 0.65*** (0.58–0.73)
  Mali 1.97***(1.79–2.16) 12.47***(11.36–13.70)
  Nigeria 0.15***(0.14–0.16) 2.49***(2.30–2.69)
  Niger 0.01***(0.01–0.02) 0.24***(0.20–0.30)
  Sierra Leone 3.26***(3.06–3.18) 3.35***(3.12–3.60)
  Sengal 0.21***(0.20–0.23) 1.22***(1.11–1.33)
  Chad 0.29***(0.27–0.31) 1.37***(1.25–1.50)
  Togo 0.03***(0.02–0.03) 0.04***(0.03–0.06)
  Tanzania 0.04***(0.04–0.05) 0.06***(0.04–0.08)
  Pseudo R2 0.336 0.269
  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  2. Ref reference category, COR crude odds ratio, AOR adjusted odds ratio
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001