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Table 2 Risk factors associated with cesarean birth, multivariable models

From: Cesarean birth in the Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research: trends in utilization, risk factors, and subgroups with high cesarean birth rates

  Overall African sitesb Non-African sites
  RR (95% CI)a p valuea RR (95% CI)a p valuea RR (95% CI)a p valuea
Maternal age (years)    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
 < 20 0.9 (0.9, 0.9)  < 0.001 0.97 (0.96, 0.99)  < 0.001 0.9 (0.9, 0.9)  < 0.001
 20–35 Ref Ref Ref
 > 35 1.1 (1.1, 1.1)  < 0.001 1.0 (1.0, 1.1)  < 0.001 1.1 (1.1, 1.2)  < 0.001
Maternal education    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No formal schooling Ref Ref Ref
 Primary/secondary 1.3 (1.2, 1.3)  < 0.001 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 0.04 1.3 (1.2, 1.3)  < 0.001
University+ 1.5 (1.4, 1.7)  < 0.001 1.1 (1.1, 1.2)  < 0.001 1.5 (1.4, 1.7)  < 0.001
Parity    < 0.001   0.002    < 0.001
 0 1.3 (1.2, 1.4)  < 0.001 1.0 (1.0, 1.1)  < 0.001 1.4 (1.3, 1.5)  < 0.001
 1–2 1.2 (1.2, 1.3)  < 0.001 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)  < 0.001 1.3 (1.2, 1.4)  < 0.001
 3+ Ref Ref Ref
4 + antenatal visits 1.2 (1.2, 1.3)  < 0.001 1.0 (1.0, 1.1)  < 0.001 1.3 (1.2, 1.3)  < 0.001
Multiple pregnancy 1.3 (1.3, 1.4)  < 0.001 1.2 (1.1, 1.3)  < 0.001 1.4 (1.3, 1.4)  < 0.001
OL/PL/FLP 1.1 (1.0, 1.1)  < 0.001 1.1 (1.0, 1.1) 0.01 1.1 (1.1, 1.1)  < 0.001
Antepartum hemorrhage 2.3 (2.0, 2.7)  < 0.001 2.2 (1.7, 2.8)  < 0.001 2.1 (1.9, 2.4)  < 0.001
HTN/PEC/EC 1.6 (1.5, 1.7)  < 0.001 1.2 (1.1, 1.3)  < 0.001 1.5 (1.4, 1.6)  < 0.001
  1. aRelative risks and p values are obtained from log binomial models as a function of each individual risk factor using generalized estimating equations to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster
  2. bOL/PL/FTP represents obstructed labor, prolonged labor, failure to progress
  3. cHTN/PEC/EC represents hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia