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Table 4 Robson classification of cesarean birth within the global network, by site, 2017–2018: the percent of cesareans within each group

From: Cesarean birth in the Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research: trends in utilization, risk factors, and subgroups with high cesarean birth rates

  Overall African sites Non-African sites
DRC Zambia Kenya Guatemala Belagavi Nagpur Pakistan
Robson group, N (%) 9981 135 161 198 4197 2368 2550 372
1. Nulliparous, single cephalic term pregnancy in spontaneous labor 22.0% 28.1% 28.6% 34.8% 15.7% 28.9% 26.2% 9.1%
2. Nulliparous, single cephalic term pregnancy with labor induced or cesarean before labor 20.6% 0.7% 1.2% 5.6% 23.5% 17.9% 22.7% 14.2%
3. Multiparous without a previous uterine scar, single cephalic term pregnancy in spontaneous labor 6.7% 29.6% 30.4% 23.2% 4.9% 8.1% 4.9% 3.2%
4. Multiparous without a previous uterine scar, single cephalic term pregnancy with labor induced or cesarean before labor 8.2% 1.5% 5.6% 3.0% 9.1% 8.4% 7.1% 11.6%
5. Multiparous with a previous uterine scar, single cephalic term pregnancy 23.2% 7.4% 8.1% 10.1% 25.7% 20.1% 24.7% 22.8%
6. Nulliparous with a single breech pregnancy 2.5% 0.7% 6.2% 2.0% 2.5% 3.0% 2.2% 1.6%
7. Multiparous with a single breech pregnancy 2.0% 4.4% 6.8% 5.6% 2.7% 1.2% 0.7% 3.0%
8. Multiple pregnancy 1.6% 8.9% 3.7% 5.6% 1.3% 1.8% 0.9% 1.6%
9. Single pregnancy with a transverse or oblique lie 2.6% 5.9% 1.2% 3.0% 3.8% 1.5% 1.1% 4.6%
10. Single cephalic preterm pregnancy 10.6% 12.6% 8.1% 7.1% 10.7% 9.1% 9.4% 28.2%