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Table 1 Demographic characteristics by region

From: Regional trends in birth weight in low- and middle-income countries 2013–2018

Characteristic Africa (N = 85,551) Asia (N = 122,349) Central America (N = 57,230) Africa vs. Asia Africa vs. CA Asia vs. CA
Mean/% diff p value Mean/% diff p value Mean/% diff p value
Maternal age (years), Mean (SD) 24.43 (6.09) 24.81 (4.24) 26.01 (6.56) − 0.38  < 0.001 − 1.58  < 0.001 − 1.20  < 0.001
Maternal age (years), N (%)
 11–19 20,101 (24) 7165 (6) 9772 (17) 18  < 0.001 7  < 0.001 − 11  < 0.001
 20–35 60,198 (70) 112,716 (92) 41,572 (73) − 22  < 0.001 − 3  < 0.001 19  < 0.001
 36+  5149 (6) 2454 (2) 5883 (10) 4  < 0.001 − 4  < 0.001 − 8  < 0.001
Nulliparous, N (%) 26,529 (31) 76,189 (37) 17,039 (30) − 6  < 0.001 1  < 0.001 7  < 0.001
Education, N (%)
 No formal education 3902 (5) 36,886 (30) 7583 (13) − 25  < 0.001 − 8  < 0.001 17  < 0.001
 Primary/secondary 77,313 (90) 73,006 (60) 46,323 (81) 30  < 0.001 9  < 0.001 − 21  < 0.001
 University 4230 (5) 12,394 (10) 3323 (6) − 5  < 0.001 − 1  < 0.001 4  < 0.001
Maternal weight(kgs), Mean (SD) 60.19 (9.51) 46.68 (8.05) 56.70 (9.48) 13.51  < 0.001 3.49  < 0.001 − 10.02  < 0.001
Maternal height(cm), Mean (SD) 158.74 (6.72) 152.93 (5.65) 147.10 (5.45) 5.81  < 0.001 11.64  < 0.001 5.83  < 0.001
Male infant, N (%) 43,179 (50) 63,443 (52) 29,175 (51) − 2  < 0.001 − 1 0.052 1  < 0.001
Facility birth, N (%) 65,281 (76) 108,573 (89) 33,135 (58) − 13  < 0.001 − 18  < 0.001 31  < 0.001
Number of days between birth and birth weight measurement, Mean (SD) 0.32 (1.04) 0.51 (0.97) 1.07 (1.89) − 0.19  < 0.001 − 0.75  < 0.001 − 0.56  < 0.001
  1. CA Central America