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Table 3 Maternal, delivery and infant characteristics as risk factors for low birth weight—overall and site specific risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals and p values

From: Rates and risk factors for preterm birth and low birthweight in the global network sites in six low- and low middle-income countries

Characteristic Relative risk (95% CI), p-value
Overall, all sites DRC Zambia Kenya Guatemala Belagavi Nagpur Pakistan
Maternal age (20–35) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 < 20 1.35 (1.30, 1.40), < .0001 1.84 (1.60, 2.10), < .0001 1.67 (1.49, 1.88), < .0001 2.31 (2.10, 2.55), < .0001 1.23 (1.17, 1.28), < .0001 1.33 (1.27, 1.39), < .0001 1.23 (1.11, 1.36), < .0001 1.40 (1.27, 1.54), < .0001
 > 35 1.00 (0.95, 1.05), 0.8649 1.24 (1.04, 1.49), 0.0177 0.98 (0.80, 1.21), 0.8748 0.71 (0.49, 1.02), 0.0655 1.01 (0.95, 1.07), 0.7819 1.53 (1.22, 1.91), 0.0002 1.35 (1.01, 1.79), 0.0392 0.82 (0.73, 0.91), 0.0002
Maternal education (University +) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 No formal education 1.31 (1.23, 1.38), < .0001 4.56 (1.56, 13.33), 0.0056 0.76 (0.60, 0.95), 0.0158 1.21 (0.78, 1.86), 0.3961 1.16 (1.08, 1.25), < .0001 1.39 (1.24, 1.55), < .0001 1.11 (0.95, 1.30), 0.1952 1.31 (1.12, 1.53), 0.0009
 Primary/secondary 1.21 (1.15, 1.27), < .0001 4.38 (1.49, 12.83), 0.0072 0.88 (0.76, 1.02), 0.0896 0.91 (0.74, 1.13), 0.4152 1.16 (1.08, 1.24), < .0001 1.21 (1.10, 1.33), < .0001 1.26 (1.16, 1.36), < .0001 1.11 (0.90, 1.36), 0.3342
Parity (1–2) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 0 1.38 (1.34,1.43), < .0001 1.86 (1.69,2.05), < .0001 1.57 (1.42,1.74), < .0001 2.23 (1.93,2.59), < .0001 1.26 (1.20,1.32), < .0001 1.41 (1.34, 1.50), < .0001 1.38 (1.32, 1.45), < .0001 1.23 (1.16, 1.31), < .0001
 > 2 0.90 (0.87, 0.93), < .0001 0.86 (0.79, 0.94), 0.0007 0.90 (0.83, 0.99), 0.0264 0.78 (0.67, 0.91), 0.0015 0.93 (0.87, 0.99), 0.0148 0.91 (0.85, 0.98), 0.0114 1.01 (0.86, 1.19), 0.8745 0.85 (0.80, 0.89), < .0001
Consumption of vitamins/calcium/iron 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Not consumed 1.18 (1.10, 1.27), < .0001 1.35 (1.11, 1.64), 0.0030 2.20 (0.99, 4.89), 0.0521 1.71 (1.14, 2.58), 0.0100 1.16 (0.98, 1.36), 0.0779 1.47 (1.34, 1.62), < .0001 0.81 (0.60, 1.10), 0.1811 1.10 (1.03, 1.17), 0.0027
Received tetanus toxoid immunization 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Did not receive 1.03 (0.97, 1.09), 0.3134 1.15 (0.90, 1.46), 0.2625 0.66 (0.48, 0.91), 0.0122 0.73 (0.52, 1.03), 0.0706 0.93 (0.87, 0.98), 0.0146 0.85 (0.53, 1.36), 0.5044 0.89 (0.61, 1.31), 0.5602 1.14 (1.07, 1.21), < .0001
Number of ANC visits (4+) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 0 1.36 (1.20, 1.55), < .0001 2.48 (1.83, 3.35), < .0001 6.45 (3.12, 13.33), < .0001 2.90 (2.00, 4.20), < .0001 1.20 (0.96, 1.50), 0.1003 1.26 (0.53, 2.98), 0.5976 0.65 (0.44, 0.95), 0.0277 1.25 (1.09, 1.44), 0.0015
 1–3 1.27 (1.22, 1.31), < .0001 1.88 (1.58, 2.25), < .0001 1.70 (1.39, 2.07), < .0001 1.48 (1.28, 1.70), < .0001 1.23 (1.18, 1.28), < .0001 1.33 (1.26, 1.41), < .0001 1.08 (1.00, 1.16), 0.0399 1.15 (1.08, 1.22), < .0001
No obstructive labor 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Had obstructive labor 0.85 (0.80, 0.92), < .0001 1.30 (1.05, 1.60), 0.0151 1.24 (0.85, 1.81), 0.2691 1.21 (0.85, 1.72), 0.2813 0.71 (0.60, 0.84), < .0001 0.90 (0.79, 1.02), 0.1106 0.82 (0.74, 0.91), 0.0002 0.88 (0.80, 0.96), 0.0042
No severe antepartum hemorrhage 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Had severe antepartum hemorrhage 2.82 (2.53, 3.15), < .0001 4.89 (3.63, 6.59), < .0001 6.56 (5.09, 8.45), < .0001 5.70 (3.93, 8.27), < .0001 3.63 (3.18, 4.14), < .0001 3.22 (2.74,3.80), < .0001 3.05 (2.43, 3.81), < .0001 1.89 (1.73, 2.07), < .0001
No severe postpartum hemorrhage 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Had severe postpartum hemorrhage 1.02 (0.93, 1.12), 0.6406 1.10 (0.79, 1.53), 0.5741 1.36 (0.94, 1.97), 0.1036 2.32 (1.36, 3.97), 0.0021 1.15 (0.95, 1.38), 0.1438 0.89 (0.79, 1.01), 0.0805 1.06 (0.70, 1.60), 0.7964 0.96 (0.86, 1.07), 0.4937
No hypertensive disorders 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Had hypertensive disorders 2.01 (1.88, 2.15), < .0001 1.72 (0.87, 3.40), 0.1185 3.52 (2.57, 4.82), < .0001 6.35 (3.84, 10.50), < .0001 1.99 (1.83, 2.16), < .0001 1.98 (1.86, 2.11), < .0001 1.93 (1.73, 2.14), < .0001 1.31 (1.16, 1.47), < .0001
No fetal malpresentation 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Had fetal malpresentation 1.45 (1.35, 1.56), < .0001 2.43 (1.44, 4.08), 0.0008 2.25 (1.49, 3.39), 0.0001 2.13 (1.02, 4.44), 0.0432 1.40 (1.25, 1.56), < .0001 1.38 (1.16, 1.63), 0.0002 1.28 (1.09, 1.49), 0.0022 1.41 (1.28, 1.56), < .0001
BMI, kg/m2 (18.5–24.9) 1.0 1.0 1.0   1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 < 18.5 1.30 (1.26, 1.34), < .0001 1.54 (1.44, 1.64), < .0001 1.45 (1.19, 1.76), 0.0002 1.43 (1.22, 1.66), < .0001 1.22 (1.18, 1.26), < .0001 1.24 (1.18, 1.30), < .0001 1.36 (1.31, 1.42), < .0001
≥ 25.0 0.70 (0.67, 0.73), < .0001 0.68 (0.59, 0.78), < .0001 0.57 (0.51, 0.64), < .0001 0.68 (0.65, 0.72), < .0001 0.80 (0.74, 0.87), < .0001 0.77 (0.69, 0.86) < .0001 0.70 (0.64, 0.76), < .0001
Hemoglobin (≥ 11 g/dL) 1.0      1.0 1.0  
 10.0–10.9 g/dL (mild) 1.02 (0.98, 1.06), 0.2489 1.00 (0.96, 1.05), 0.9940 1.07 (1.01, 1.13), 0.0187
 < 10.0 g/dL (moderate/severe) 1.12 (1.08, 1.17), < .0001 1.08 (1.03,1.14), 0.0035 1.20 (1.14, 1.26), < .0001
Sex of the baby (male) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Female 1.19 (1.17, 1.21), < .0001 1.24 (1.16, 1.31), < .0001 1.19 (1.09, 1.30), < .0001 1.15 (1.01, 1.31), 0.0296 1.24 (1.19, 1.28), < .0001 1.16 (1.11, 1.21), < .0001 1.20 (1.16, 1.24), < .0001 1.17 (1.12, 1.23), < .0001
  1. □—BMI not calculated for Kenya because maternal height was not recorded before 2017
  2. ░—Maternal hemoglobin not consistently collected at all GN sites except Belagavi, India and Nagpur, India
  3. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the relationship of potential factors and LBW and to develop point and interval estimates of relative risk associated with these factors. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for the correlation of outcomes within cluster to develop appropriate confidence intervals. The reference group is indicated by 1.0 in the Risk Ratio column