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Table 1 Characteristics of unmarried sexually active and non-sexually active women aged 15–19 years in Ogun, South Western Nigeriaa

From: Modern contraceptive use among unmarried girls aged 15–19 years in South Western Nigeria: results from a cross-sectional baseline survey for the Adolescent 360 (A360) impact evaluation

Characteristic Sexually active, N = 1844 Non-sexually active, N = 10,180 p valueb
Sociodemographic factors n (%)a n (%)a  
Age (years)  
 15 66 (3.6) 3213 (31.6)
 16 119 (6.5) 1854 (18.2)
 17 233 (12.6) 1692 (16.6)
 18 552 (29.9) 2006 (19.7)  
 19 874 (47.4) 1415 (13.9) < 0.001
 Age (years)c 18 (18–19) 17 (15–18)  
Religion
 Catholic 36 (2.0) 245 (2.4)  
 Protestant/other christian 1181 (64.1) 6195 (60.9)  
 Muslim 620 (33.6) 3703 (36.4)  
 Traditional 7 (0.38) 31 (0.30)  
 No religion 0 1 (0.01)  
 Other 0 3 (0.03) 0.15
Highest education level achieved    
 No education 21 (1.1) 125 (1.2)  
 Quranic onlyd 0 4 (0.04)  
 Primary 109 (5.9) 363 (3.6)  
 Secondary 1547 (83.9) 9301 (91.4)  
 Higher education 167 (9.1) 386 (3.8) < 0.001
Currently in education
 Yes 563 (30.5) 6328 (62.2)  
 No 1281 (69.5) 3847 (37.8) < 0.001
Type of residence
 Urban 662 (35.9) 3621 (35.6)  
 Semi-urban 756 (41.0) 4257 (41.8)  
 Rural 426 (23.1) 2302 (22.6) 0.87
Socioeconomic level
 Lowest quintile 6 (0.33) 15 (0.15)  
 Second lowest quintile 6 (0.33) 44 (0.44)  
 Middle quintile 62 (3.4) 213 (2.1)  
 Second highest quintile 355 (19.7) 1587 (16.0)  
 Highest quintile 1376 (76.2) 8060 (81.3) < 0.001
Exposure to information about contraception
 Ever heard about contraception
  Yes 1664 (90.7) 7861 (77.6)  
  No 171 (9.3) 2271 (22.4) < 0.001
 Heard about contraception in the media in last 12 months?
  Yes 398 (23.9) 2177 (27.7)  
  No 1266 (76.1) 5684 (72.3) 0.002
 Heard about contraception from health sector sources in last 12 months?
  Yes 414 (24.9) 1103 (14.0)  
  No 1250 (75.1) 6758 (86.0) < 0.001
 Heard about contraception from interpersonal sources in last 12 months?
  Yes 986 (59.3) 3941 (50.1)  
  No 678 (40.8) 3920 (49.9) < 0.001
 Knows a place where or a person from whom she would feel comfortable accessing contraception?e   
  Yes 672 (40.5)
  No 923 (55.7)
  Don’t know 63 (3.8)
Social networks
 Perception that partner supports her using contraceptione
  Yes 1058 (65.0)   
  No 354 (21.7)   
  Don’t know 216 (13.3)   
 Perception that mother supports her using contraceptione
  Yes 383 (25.7)   
  No 747 (50.2)   
  Don’t know 359 (24.1)   
 Perception that friends supports her using contraceptione   
  Yes 925 (55.6)
  No 367 (22.1)
  Don’t know 372 (22.4)
Individual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours    
 Knowledge about contraceptionf
  0–1 60 (3.6) 547 (7.0)  
  2–3 334 (20.1) 2126 (27.0)
  4–5 1270 (76.3) 5188 (66.0) < 0.001
 Misconceptions about contraceptiong
  0–1 526 (31.6) 2642 (33.6)  
  2–3 851 (51.1) 4043 (51.4)  
  4 287 (17.3) 1176 (15.0) 0.06
 Self-efficacy for contraceptione,h   
  0–1 280 (17.1)
  2–3 609 (37.3)
  4 745 (45.6)
 Timing of most recent sexual activity  
  Within past week 302 (16.4) 0
  Within past month 582 (31.6) 0
  Within past year 960 (52.1) 0
  More than 1 year ago 0 1199 (11.8)  
  Never 0 8981 (88.2) < 0.001
 Age at first sexual intercourse  
  < 15 192 (10.6) 257 (24.7)
  15–17 1103 (61.3) 688 (61.9)
  18–19 504 (28.0) 148 (13.3)
  Age (years)c 17 (15–18) 16 (15–17) < 0.001
 Ever been pregnant  
  Yes, currently pregnant 98 (20.3) 0
  Yes, currently not pregnant 379 (78.5) 166 (98.8)
  Yes, not sure if currently pregnant 6 (1.2) 2 (2.2)
  No 1358 (73.6) 10,009 (98.3)
  Don’t know 3 (0.16) 3 (0.03) < 0.001
 Ever given birth
  Yes 178 (9.7) 99 (0.97)  
  No 1666 (90.4) 10,081 (99.0) < 0.001
 Unmet need for modern contraceptione,i   
  No unmet need 1223 (71.0)
  Unmet need for spacing 496 (28.8)
  Unmet need for limiting 3 (0.17)
  Total unmet need 499 (29.0)
  1. aThe figures refer to N (%)
  2. bp value obtained using chi-squared test
  3. cMedian (IQR)
  4. dIn Nigeria, apart from the formal educational system, a non-formal Arabic and Islamic Educational System operates among the Nigerian Muslims, through Quranic schools
  5. eOnly respondents who reported sexual intercourse in the last 12 months were asked these questions
  6. fScored based on the responses to the following five questions: (1) preventing unwanted pregnancies is a benefit of contraception, (2) some contraceptive methods reduce sexually transmitted infections, (3) modern contraception can help with delaying having a first child, (4) modern contraception can help with child spacing and (5) using modern contraception can allow a woman to complete her education, find a better job and have a better life
  7. gScored based on the responses to the following four questions: (1) some modern contraception can stop an adolescent woman from ever being pregnant again even after she stops using it, (2) if a modern contraception changes an adolescent woman’s menstrual bleeding, it’s bad for her health and can harm her womb, (3) some modern contraceptives can make girls permanently fat and (4) girls who use modern contraception sleep with too many men
  8. hScored based on the responses to the following four questions: (1) felt able to start a conversation with her partner about contraception, (2) felt able to use a method of contraception even if her partner did not want her to, (3) felt able to obtain information on contraception services and products if she needed to and (4) felt able to obtain a contraceptive method if she decided to use one
  9. iDHS definition [43]. Women reporting mistimed or unwanted pregnancies or recent births were considered having unmet need for spacing and for limiting, respectively [43]. In addition, fecund women who wanted children 2 or more years in the future, or were undecided whether/when they wanted a child were regarded as having an unmet need for spacing. Fecund women who wanted no more children were regarded as having an unmet need for limiting [43]. The denominator for the calculation of unmet need is the total of unmarried women aged 15–19 years. The numerator includes only women who were not using contraception at the time of the survey [7]