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Table 2 Socio-Demographic characteristics of the study population(N = 819)

From: Household fuel use and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a Ghanaian cohort study

Characteristic Cooking Fuel Use
Polluting (n = 279)Clean (n = 540) 
 Total Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)P-value
Gestational Age at Delivery (wks.) (n = 732)39.0 (1.9)39.1 (1.9)39.0 (1.9)0.68
Age at first ANC visit (yr.) (n = 819)28.3 (5.0)27.8 (5.6)28.5 (4.8)0.06
BMI (kg m−2) (n = 813)25.5 (4.8)25.0 (4.6)25.8 (4.8)0.01
 Total group N (%)N (%)N (%)P-value
Maternal Education (n = 819)< 0.001
 No education83 (10)52 (19))31 (6) 
 Primary school96 (12)40 (14)56 (10) 
 Lower Secondary or Vocational390 (48)143 (51)247 (46) 
 Upper Secondary & Tertiary250 (31)44 (16)206 (38) 
SES by asset index (n = 819)< 0.001
 Lowest 40%303 (37)217 (77)86 (16.5) 
 Middle 40%339 (41)50 (18)289 (54) 
 Highest 20%177 (22)12 (4)165 (30.5) 
Formal Employment (n = 819)< 0.001
 Yes103 (13)11 (4)92 (17) 
 No716 (87)268 (96)448 (83) 
Ethnicity (n = 819)0.03
 Akan293 (36)97 (35)196 (36) 
 Hausa158 (19)57 (20)101 (19) 
 Ewe171 (21)48 (17)123 (23) 
 Ga,Ga-Dangme83 (10)25 (9)58 (11) 
 Mole, Dagbon, Gonia, Other114 (14)52 (19)62 (11) 
Parity (n = 819)0.89
 0–1573 (70)193 (69)380 (70) 
 2—3230 (28)81 (29)149 (28) 
  > =416 (2)5 (2)11 (2) 
 Vitamin Use During Pregnancy411 (50)174 (47)326 (50)0.37
  1. Significant at P value < 0.05 for Chi-square test or T-test