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Table 3 Incidence of adverse birth outcomes by household main fuel source

From: Household fuel use and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a Ghanaian cohort study

 Cooking Fuel Use
OutcomeOutcomePollutingClean 
 TotalN (%)N (%)P-value
Caesarean Section (n = 784)8630 (12)56 (11)0.72
Post-partum Hemorrhage (n = 700)219 (4)12 (3)0.35
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (n = 767)7119 (7)52 (10)0.21
Chronic Hypertension(n = 712)164 (2)12 (3)0.59
Miscarriage (n = 819)3919 (7)20 (4)0.04
Perinatal Mortality (n = 784)117 (3)4 (1)0.04a
Preterm Birth (n = 734)5420 (8)34 (7)0.56
SGA (n = 723)187 (3)11 (2)0.63
Birthweight < 2500 (n = 772)8630 (12)56 (11)0.73
Apgar Score < 7 at 1 min (n = 750)11541 (16)74 (15)0.63
Apgar Score < 7 at 5 min (n = 748)2916 (6)13 (3)0.01
 Mean (SD)Polluting Mean (SD)Clean Mean (SD)P-value
Birthweight (n = 772)3127 (492)3101 (489)3140 (494)0.29