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Table 4 Association between fuel use and birth outcomes

From: Household fuel use and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a Ghanaian cohort study

OutcomeHousehold Fuel Use 
PollutingabPollutingab
 Crude OR(95%CI)Adjusted OR(95%CI)b
Caesarean Section1.09 (0.67–1.73)1.13 (0.60–2.12)
Post-partum Hemorrhage1.51 (0.60–3.62)1.83 (0.56–5.95)
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy0.70 (0.39–1.20)0.79 (0.38–1.62)
Chronic Hypertension0.64 (0.17–1.87)0.41 (0.08–1.75)
Miscarriage1.90 (0.99–3.63)2.10 (0.91–4.81)
Perinatal Mortality3.59 (1.07–13.83)7.6 (1.67–36.0)
Preterm Birth1.18 (0.65–2.08)1.01 (0.48–2.10)
SGA1.26 (0.46–3.25)1.43 (0.40–4.89)
Birthweight < 25001.08 (0.66–1.72)1.05 (0.57–1.93)
Apgar Score < 7 at 1 min1.10 (0.72–1.66)1.12 (0.65–1.92)
Apgar Score < 7 at 5 min2.51 (1.19–5.41)3.83 (1.44–10.11)
 Crude β (CI 95%)Adjusted β (CI 95%)
Birthweight (g)−39.22(−113.09–34.65)−4.422(−98.08–89.23)
  1. aVs. Clean (reference) bAdjusted for BMI, maternal age, maternal education and SES