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Table 2 Nine Principles of CPAR as identified by Hacker (Source: Adapted from [24] pages 10-14)

From: Transforming social norms to end FGM in the EU: an evaluation of the REPLACE Approach

1. Acknowledges community as a unit of identity.
2. Builds upon strengths and resources within the community.
3. Facilitates a collaborative, equitable partnership in all phases of research involving an empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities.
4. Fosters co-learning and capacity building among all partners.
5. Integrates and achieves a balance between knowledge generation and intervention for the mutual benefit of all partners.
6. Focuses on the local relevance of public health problems and on ecological perspectives that attend to the multiple determinants of health.
7. Involves systems development, using a cyclical and iterative process.
8. Disseminates results to all partners and involves them in the wider dissemination of results.
9. Involves a long term process and commitment to sustainability.