|System||- alterations on the mesocorticolimbic system [15, 16].|
- thicker prefrontal cortex .
|- changes in the dopaminergic activity of the corpus striatum and on the prefrontal cortex .|
- dopaminergic activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis and the amygdala .
- alterations in the cortical glutamatergic system and affects the migration of glutamatergic neurons and GABAergic interneurons [22, 23].
- alterations in the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum .
|Molecular||- high CB1 mRNA expression in the fetal hippocampus and amygdala .|
- decrease in the expression of proenkephalin mRNA in the fetal striatum with a dose-dependent effect [20, 47].
- up-regulation of proenkephalin mRNA in the mesolimbic area in adult life [20, 47].
- increased expression of u-opioids in the amygdala [17,18,19,20, 47].
- decrease of k-opioid receptor mRNA in the mid-dorsal thalamus [17,18,19,20, 47].