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Table 3 Ethnic disparities in maternal and perinatal characteristics and outcomes in Suriname, 2016–2017

From: Childbirth outcomes and ethnic disparities in Suriname: a nationwide registry-based study in a middle-income country

 Total
n = (%)
Maroon
n = (%)
Creole
n = (%)
Hindustani
n = (%)
Mix
n = (%)
Javanese
n = (%)
Indigenous
n = (%)
Chinese
n = (%)
Other a
n = (%)
p-value
Total births18,2904950 (27.6)4217 (23.5)3395 (18.9)2254 (12.5)1948 (10.8)681 (3.8)381 (2.1)137 (0.8) 
Maternal age
  < 20 years2462 (13.7)904 (18.3)552 (13.1)322 (9.5)303 (13.5)211 (10.9)146 (21.4)11 (2.9)13 (9.5) 
 20–35 years13,420 (74.9)3383 (68.4)3164 (75.1)2774 (82.0)1704 (75.8)1504 (77.4)465 (68.3)326 (85.6)101 (73.7)< 0.05
  > 36 years2043 (11.4)654 (13.2)496 (11.8)286 (8.5)241 (10.7)229 (11.8)70 (10.3)44 (11.5)23 (16.8) 
Parity
 06124 (34.2)1253 (25.4)1411 (33.6)1456 (43.0)883 (39.3)704 (36.2)212 (31.3)148 (38.8)57 (41.6) 
 1–39387 (52.5)2346 (47.5)2267 (54.0)1812 (53.6)1204 (53.6)1122 (57.7)338 (49.9)228 (59.8)71 (51.8)< 0.05
  > 42389 (13.3)1338 (27.1)519 (12.4)115 (3.4)159 (7.1)117 (6.0)127 (18.8)5 (1.3)9 (6.6) 
Gestational age
  < 28 weeks210 (1.2)72 (1.5)64 (1.5)35 (1.0)21 (0.9)10 (0.5)7 (1.0)1 (0.3) 
 28–37 weeks2266 (12.7)711 (14.6)561 (13.4)405 (12.0)274 (12.3)192 (9.9)82 (12.2)29 (7.7)13 (9.7)< 0.05
 Term15,299 (86.1)4104 (84.0)3548 (85.1)2933 (87.0)1933 (86.8)1728 (89.5)583 (86.8)349 (92.1)121 (90.3) 
Anemiaantepartum
 Moderate2258 (36.4)808 (51.8)667 (43.8)372 (33.5)146 (20.9)147 (19.0)71 (37.6)36 (13.9)11 (11.7)< 0.05
 Severe145 (2.3)76 (4.9)38 (2.5)15 (1.4)10 (1.4)2 (0.3)4 (2.1) 
Mode of delivery
 Spontaneous13,428 (74.8)4074 (82.3)3174 (75.3)2223 (65.5)1575 (69.9)1482 (76.1)531 (78.0)301 (79.0)69 (50.4)< 0.05
 Vacuum225 (1.3)31 (0.6)28 (0.7)84 (2.5)34 (1.5)31 (1.6)12 (1.8)4 (1.0)1 (0.7)
 Cesarean4309 (24.0)845 (17.1)1015 (24.1)1088 (32.1)645 (28.7)435 (22.3)138 (20.3)76 (19.9)67 (48.9)
Presentation
 Cephalic17,359 (96.7)4787 (96.7)4093 (97.1)3252 (95.8)2193 (97.3)1873 (96.1)661 (97.1)367 (96.3)134 (97.8)0.03
Post partum hemorrhage
 500–999 mL1012 (6.3)288 (6.3)239 (6.3)140 (4.8)144 (7.3)121 (6.9)50 (8.1)21 (6.2)9 (9.0)< 0.05
  > 1000 mL251 (1.6)79 (1.7)58 (1.5)32 (1.1)29 (1.5)22 (1.3)21 (3.4)8 (2.4)2 (2.0) 
Total babies born18,5045035 (27.7)4268 (23.5)3422 (18.8)2277 (12.5)1965 (10.8)687 (3.8)382 (2.1)139 (0.8) 
Live Births17,789 (97.9)b4877 (96.9)4157 (97.4)3370 (98.5)2240 (98.4)1951 (99.3)674 (98.1)381 (99.7)139 (98.6)< 0.05
Stillbirths (> 22 weeks or 1000 g)386 (2.1)158 (3.1)111 (2.6)52 (1.5)37 (1.6)14 (0.7)13 (1.9)1 (0.3)0 (0) 
Sex
 Girl8767 (48.3)2485 (49.4)2083 (48.9)1637 (47.9)1064 (46.8)926 (47.1)321 (46.9)181 (47.4)70 (50.4)0.39
Birth weight
  < 2500 g2730 (15.1)847 (16.9)662 (15.6)614 (18.0)294 (13.0)183 (9.4)87 (12.6)32 (8.4)11 (8.0) 
 2500–4000 g14,805 (81.9)4047 (80.8)3449 (81.4)2710 (79.6)1887 (83.2)1690 (86.4)568 (83.4)334 (87.9)120 (86.1)< 0.05
  > 4000 g542 (3.0)115 (2.3)127 (3.0)81 (2.4)88 (3.9)83 (4.2)26 (3.8)14 (3.7)8 (5.8) 
APGAR 5 min’
  < 7639 (3.8)243 (5.3)187 (4.8)95 (3.0)58 (2.8)31 (1.7)21 (3.5)4 (1.1)< 0.05
Late stillbirth
 n=28512277402311912< 0.05
 SBR per 1000 births c15.625.018.611.910.35.713.414.6 
Maternal deaths
 Nationwide maternal deaths, n=2513431121 
 MMR per 100.000 national live births d127N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A 
 Hospital maternal deathsd, n=2094311110.59
 MMR per 100.000 hospital live births d11218496894551147262 
  1. aEthnicity other: Brazilian (n = 101, 73.7%), Caucasian (n = 25, 18.2%), Afro-Caribbean (n = 11). Missing ethnicities, n = 327 (1.8%)
  2. bMissing ethnicities n = 328 with no significant differences within the variables
  3. cSBR: stillbirth rate = per 1000 births > 28 weeks or > 1000 g
  4. dMMR: maternal mortality rate, maternal deaths per 100.000 live births (LB), of 20 hospital maternal deaths two occurred antepartum