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Table 2 Characteristics of publications included in the review

From: Minimum initial service package (MISP) for sexual and reproductive health for women in a displacement setting: a narrative review on the Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon

Authors Article Year Publication type Participant characteristics Summary of relevant findings
Peer-reviewed articles  
Kabakian-Khasholian et al. [5] Perspectives of displaced Syrian women and service providers on fertility behaviour and available services in West Bekaa, Lebanon 2017 Qualitative study 84 married Syrian refugee women Changing fertility patterns following displacement
Barriers to SRH services and contraceptive use: high cost, discrimination, lack of women providers
Samari et al. [7] Syrian refugee women's health in Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan and recommendations for improved practice 2017 Review N/A Poor access to SRH services and decreased use of contraception post displacement
Barriers to access include high cost, distance and mistreatment
Benage et al. [8] An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon 2015 Cross-sectional study 420 pregnant Syrian refugee women Only 15.7% of women received the required 4 antenatal care (ANC) visits. The quality of ANC services was subpar with 44.6% of those attending 4 or more visits receiving all 3 necessary interventions
Masterson et al. [9] Assessment of reproductive health and violence against women among displaced Syrians in Lebanon 2014 Cross-sectional study 452 Syrian refugee women High prevalence of pregnancy complications (39.5%) and adverse birth outcomes
High level of SGBV with few seeking care
Mourtada et al. [17] A qualitative study exploring child marriage practices among Syrian conflict-affected populations in Lebanon 2017 Qualitative study 24 Adolescent Syrian girls and 26 parents Higher incidence of early and forced marriage in Lebanon following displacement
Usta et al. [18] Violence against displaced Syrian women in Lebanon 2019 Qualitative study 29 Syrian refugee women SGBV was common in multiple settings including interpersonal violence
DeJong et al. [20] Reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health in conflict: a case study on Syria using Countdown indicators 2017 Review N/A Low antenatal care utilization, high C-section rate
Tohme et al. [23] HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of unprotected anal sex and HIV testing among male refugees who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon 2016 Cross-sectional study 213 men, of which 48 were refugees Low levels of HIV prevalence and testing
Tappis et al. [24] Maternal health care utilization among Syrian refugees in Lebanon and Jordan 2017 Cross-sectional study 1376 Syrian refugee households Majority of women reported seeking ANC with an average of 4.8 visits. High C-section rate. Barriers to access include high cost, long waiting lines and restricted movement
Huster et al. [24] Cesarean sections among Syrian refugees in Lebanon from December 2012/January 2013 to June 2013: probable causes and recommendations 2014 Mixed methods 6,366 delivery records and 9 refugee women interviewed Deliveries accounted for 50% of hospitalizations and C-section rate was 35%
Cherri et al. [28] Early marriage and barriers to contraception among Syrian refugee women in Lebanon: a qualitative study 2017 Qualitative study 108 Syrian refugee women Barriers to contraceptive use: lack of preferred method, cost, perceived side effects and misinformation
Talhouk [29] Syrian Refugee and Digital Health in Lebanon: Opportunities for Improving Antenatal Health 2017 Qualitative study 59 Syrian refugee women Barriers to antenatal care access: distance, cost, discrimination
Grey Literature
MOPH [2] Health Response Strategy: Maintaining Health Security, Preserving Population Health & Saving Children and Women Lives 2016 Report N/A The MoPH was leading and strengthening the healthcare response to the Syrian refugee crisis through its network of PHCs and specialized reproductive health services
UNHCR [12] Sexual and Gender-based Violence Prevention and Response in Refugee Situations in the Middle East and North Africa 2015 Report N/A Increased exposure to SGBV among Syrian refugees
UNFPA [13] Independent Country Evaluation Programme: Lebanon 2014 Report N/A Throughout 2012, UNFPA conducted 4 MISP trainings to healthcare workers
UNFPA [14] Key results of Lebanon in 2018 2018 Report N/A 120 healthcare workers received MISP training in 2018
Anani [15] Dimensions of gender-based violence against Syrian refugees in Lebanon 2013 Report Unspecified Higher level of SGBV following displacement and scattered services
Essaid et al. [16] Gender based violence against women and girls displaced by the Syrian conflict in south Lebanon and north Jordan: Scope of violence and health correlates 2015 Mixed methods study 182 Syrian refugee women in Lebanon High level of experienced violence following displacement with violence associated with poor utilization of services and SRH outcomes
Amnesty International [19] ‘I want a safe place’ Refugee women from Syria uprooted and unprotected in Lebanon 2016 Report 65 Syrian refugee women SGBV was common with multiple barriers to accessing care including legal status and movement restrictions
UNHCR [21] Consultative meeting on Clinical Management of Rape (CMR) Services 2016 Presentation N/A Limited service provision at some CMR centers due to lack of trained staff
K2P [22] Addressing Limitations to Equitable Access to Healthcare Services for People Living with HIV in Lebanon 2015 Review N/A Despite the presence of Voluntary Testing and Counselling (VCT) centers in Lebanon, the majority are not functioning
K2P [25] Reducing preventable Preterm Deliveries among Syrian Refugees in Lebanon 2017 Review N/A High rate of C-section, delivery complications and neonatal mortality. Poor utilization of postnatal care
UNHCR [26] Health access and utilization survey among Syrian refugees in Lebanon 2017 Cross-sectional study 479 households The majority of women received antenatal care during pregnancy. 31% of women delivered by C-section. The most commonly used contraceptive method was OCP
Chahine [30] Situation analysis of youth in Lebanon affected by the Syrian crisis 2014 Mixed methods 985 Syrian refugee youth Poor knowledge of contraception among Syrian refugee youth, including those who are married