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Table 1 Population characteristics of women with a history of prior cesarean birth overall and by mode of delivery, January 2017–April 2020

From: How birth outcomes among a cohort of Guatemalan women with a history of prior cesarean vary by mode or birth across different interpregnancy intervals

  Total women with history of cesarean
N = 2793
Vaginal birth after cesarean
n = 560, 20.1%
Repeat cesarean birth
n = 2233, 79.9%
p-value
Sociodemographics     
 Age in years [IQR] 27 [23,31] 28 [23,33] 27 [23,31]  < 0.001a
 Schooling n, %      < 0.001c
  Illiterate 157, 5.6% 63, 11.2% 94, 4.2%  
  Literate, no school 24, 0.9% 11, 2.0% 13, 0.6%  
  Schooling 2612, 93.5% 486, 86.8% 2126, 95.2%  
 Parity n, %      < 0.001c
  1 1472, 52.7% 161, 28.8% 1311, 58.7%  
  2 812, 29.1% 148, 26.4% 664, 29.7%  
  3 +  509, 18.2% 251, 44.8% 258, 11.6%  
 BMI kg/m2      < 0.001b
  < 18.5 10, 0.4% 0, 0.0% 10, 0.4%  
  18.5–24.9 856, 30.6% 217, 38.8% 639, 0.6%  
  25–29.9 1188, 42.5% 222, 39.6% 966, 43.3%  
  ≥ 30 739, 26.5% 121, 21.6% 618, 27.7%  
Obstetric characteristics     
 IPI in months [IQR] 27.3 [15.2,46.3] 21.7 [12.9,39.2] 29.1 [16.2,48.1]  < 0.001a
 Antenatal Care n, % 2708, 97.0% 512, 91.4% 2196, 98.3%  < 0.001c
 Multiple Gestation n, % 27, 1.0% 4, 0.7% 23, 1.0% 0.63b
 Female sex of baby n, % 1386, 49.6% 285, 50.9% 1101, 49.3% 0.10c
 Missing 3, 0.1% 2,0.4% 1, 0.1%  
 Birthweight in grams [IQR] 2870 [2610,3120] 2855 [2585,3105] 2890 [2610,3120] 0.21a
 Missing 7, 0.3% 5, 0.9% 2, 0.1%  
 Term Gestational Age n, % 2609, 93.4% 518, 92.5% 2091, 93.6% 0.33c
 Obstructed Labor n, % 114, 4.1% 13, 2.3% 101, 4.5% 0.02c
 Antepartum Hemorrhage n, % 6, 0.2% 1, 0.2% 5, 0.2% 1.0b
Hypertensive Disease n, % 164, 5.9% 6, 1.1% 158, 7.1%  < 0.001c
 Induction of Labor n, % 44, 1.6% 22, 3.9% 22, 1.0%  < 0.001c
 Referred in Labor n, %      < 0.001c
  Yes 485, 17.4% 56, 10.0% 429, 19.2%  
  Missing 1, 0.1% 0, 0.0% 1, 0.1%  
 Attendant n, %     < 0.001b
  Family 1, 0.05% 1, 0.2% 0, 0.0%  
  Non-OB MD 120, 4.3% 52, 9.3% 68, 3.1%  
  Nurse/Nurse Midwife 4, 0.1% 4, 0.7% 0, 0.0%  
  OB 2318, 83.0% 153, 27.3% 2165, 96.9%  
  Other 3, 0.1% 3, 0.5% 0, 0.0%  
  Self 1, 0.05% 1, 0.2% 0, 0.0%  
  Traditional birth attendant 346, 12.4% 346, 61.8% 0, 0.0%  
 Delivery location n, %      < 0.001b
  Clinic/Health Center 2, 0.1% 1, 0.2% 1, 0.1%  
  Home 351, 12.6% 351, 62.7% 0, 0.0%  
  Hospital 2272, 81.3% 195, 34.8% 2077, 93.0%  
  Other 168, 6.0% 13, 2.3% 155, 6.9%  
  1. Note All tests performed excluding missing data
  2. aKruskall-Wallis
  3. bFisher’s exact
  4. cchi2