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Table 4 Multilevel mixed effect logistic regression analysis of individual and community level factors associated with LACs utilization among reproductive age women in Ethiopia, 2016

From: Geographic variation and associated factors of long-acting contraceptive use among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia: a multi-level and spatial analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2016 data

Characteristics fixed effect Model I Model II AOR (95% CI) Model III AOR (95% CI) Model IV AOR (95% CI)
Age of respondent
 15–24   1   1
 25–34   1.30 (0.98–1.75)   1.22 (0.91–1.63)
 35–49   1.12 (0.80–1.58)   1.00 (0.70–1.42)
Marital status
 Never married   1   1
 Married   2.19 (1.12–4.29)   2.50 (1.29–4.85)**
 Formerly married   1.45 (0.66–3.19)   1.60 (0.73–3.51)
Wealth index
 Poorest   1   1
 Poorer   1.48 (1.01–2.18)   1.34 (0.92–1.97)
 Middle   1.47 (0.98–2.20)   1.30 (0.86–1.96)
 Richer   1.33 (0.88–1.99)   1.14 (0.75–1.72)
 Richest   1.66 (1.03–2.66)   1.06 (0.60–1.87)
Educational Status
 No education   1   1
 Primary   0.80 (0.61–1.05)   0.76 (0.58–1.00)
 Secondary and above   1.00 (0.68–1.47)   0.88 (1.09–1.84)
Working status
 Not working   1   1
 Working   1.36 (1.09–1.69)   1.33(1.07–1.65)*
Number of living children
 Have no children   1   1
 Have 1–2   2.11 (1.41–3.17)   2.13 (1.42–3.20)**
 Have 3–4   1.60 (0.98–2.62)   1.66 (1.01–2.73)*
 Have > 4   1.45 (0.83–2.53)   1.62 (0.92–2.85)
Fertility preference
 Want another   1   1
 Undecided   0.81 (0.48–1.37)   0.80 (0.48–1.35)
 Want no more   1.47 (1.14–1.91)   1.42 (1.09–1.84)*
Terminated pregnancy
 No   1   1
 Yes   0.57 (0.40–0.82)   0.56 (0.39–0.80)**
Distance to HF
 Not a big problem   1   1
 A big problem   0.72 (0.58–0.90)   0.76 (0.61–0.95)*
Residence
 Urban    1 1
 Rural    0.71 (0.47–1.08) 0.65 (0.36–1.19)
Community media exposure
 High media exposure    1 1
 Low media exposure    0.73 (0.49–1.07) 0.74(0.50–2.15)
Contextual region
 Agrarian    1 1
 Pastoral    0.19 (0.12–0.28) 0.21 (0.13–0.32)**
 Urban    1.33 (0.98–1.81) 1.57 (1.15–2.15)**
Random effect Model I Model II Model III Model IV
Variance 1.37 0.89 0.84 0.79
ICC (%) 29.33 21.34 20.30 19.29
PCV (%) Reference 35.04 38.69 42.34
MOR 3.03 (2.69–3.49) 2.45 (2.20–2.77) 2.39 (2.14–2.69) 2.32 (2.10–2.61)
LLR − 3070.92 -2917.21 − 2961.30 − 2854.54
Deviance 6141.84 5834.42 5922.60 5709.08
  1. Bold indicates the improvement of model diagnosis parametrs in the final model as compared to other models
  2. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, 1 Reference
  3. *Significance at P < 0.05, **Significance at P < 0.01
  4. Model I: null model, model II: individual level variables, model III: community level variables, model IV: individual and community level variables