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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Nothing so practical as theory: a rapid review of the use of behaviour change theory in family planning interventions involving men and boys

Author (year) Publication type Country(ies) Outcome(s) Intervention strategies Theory(ies) of change Presentation
Agha (2019) Primary research Pakistan Increased condom use Social marketing Fogg behaviour model Narrative, figure
Arstide (2020) Primary research Tanzania FP service uptake and use Family planning Workshops for religious leaders Social action theory Narrative, figure
Asingwire (2019) Review, impact evaluation Uganda FP service uptake and use, awareness, attitudes and self efficacy related to family planning National family planning programme Novel theory of change Narrative, figure
Aventin (2015) Intervention protocol UK, Ireland Reduced unintended pregnancy, increased contraceptive uptake and use Video-based, educational Theory of planned behaviour, and components of other sociological behaviour change theories Narrative
Bailey (2010) Systematic review USA Reduced unintended pregnancy, reduced HIV/STI prevalence Interactive computer based interventions Novel theory of change*
Social cognitive theory; IMB skills model,
Stages of change,
Theory of planned behaviour
Narrative, figure, study characteristics table
Barker (2007) Systematic review Panama, Peru, Nicaragua, USA, South Africa, Costa Rica, UK, Australia, Canada, Turkey, Indonesia, Zimbabwe, India, Egypt, Pakistan, Jordan, Guinea, Bangladesh, Kenya, Ethiopia, Viet Nam, Nepal, Brazil, Argentina Increase contraceptive use, increase FP communication, FP service uptake and use, reduced HIV/STI prevalence, reduced IPV Group educations, community outreach, service provision Gender transformative programming Narrative
Berhane (2015) Primary research Ethiopia FP service uptake and use, increased use of modern contraceptives Service provision Transtheoretical model of behaviour change Narrative
Casey (2015) Systematic review Liberia FP service uptake and use, increased condom use, reduced STI/HIV prevalence School-based contraceptive intervention Social change theory Narrative
Chin (2012) Systematic review Not Specified Contraceptive uptake, reduced unprotected sex, reduced pregnancy rate Sexual health education, abstinence promotion Novel theory of change* Narrative, figure
Cornman (2007) Primary research India Increased contraceptive use,
reduced STI/HIV prevalence
Informational/educational workshops IMB Skills Model Narrative
Crankshaw (2012) Primary research South Africa Increased contraceptive use, reduced STI/HIV prevalence Theoretical model, behaviour change communication Novel theory of change*,
IMB skills model
Narrative, figure
Decat (2013) Primary research, conference paper Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua Increased sexual health information seeking, increased communication about sexuality, promotion of safe sex behaviours Adolescent sexual health promotion campaign Theory of planned behaviour, social cognitive theory Narrative
Doubova (2016) Protocol Mexico Increased contraceptive (condom) use, reduced sexual risk-taking behaviours, knowledge attitudes and self-efficacy related to condom use Internet-based sexual health education IMB skills model Narrative
Downing (2011) Systematic review USA Reduced unintended pregnancy, reduce sexual activity, increased HIV/STD knowledge Parent–child and family interventions in increase knowledge and improve communication around adolescent sexual health Social cognitive theory; diffusion of innovations model, theory of planned behaviour; eco-developmental theory; social learning theory; cognitive behaviour theory; relational ethics; social developmental theory Study characteristics table
Fleming (2018) Primary research India Gender equitable attitudes, family planning uptake, attitudes toward female contraceptive use Gender equality and family planning counselling theory of gender and power Narrative, table of intervention content
Germ (2009) Primary research USA Change in parenting practices, reduced adolescent sexual risk taking behaviours Parental discipline and adolescent coping training Social control theory Narrative
Gottschalk (2014) Systematic review Mexico, Cameroon Contracptive (condom) use Educational workshops, sexual health peer-education Social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour Study characteristics table
Guse (2012) Systematic review USA Reduced unprotected sex, knowledge of HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention, sexual activity attitudes, refusal self-efficacy, sexual initiation/ debut, number of sexual partners, reduced sexual risk behaviour Web and technology-based interventions Social cognitive theory, theory of planned behaviour, theory of reasoned action, "motivational enhancement therapy", self-regulation theory, extended parallel process model, transtheoretical model, social influence models, theory of triadic influence Narrative, Study Characteristics Table
Haberland (2015) Systematic review Zimbabwe, USA, Kenya, South Africa Reduced unintended pregnancy, reduced STI infection, contraceptive uptake, condom use skills, reduce childbearing prevalence, more gender-equitable relationships, knowledge attitudes and skills around unprotected sex, Increased communication and negotiation skills, Improved sexual health knowledge Informational videos, educational, workshops, peer-education Novel theory of change, social learning theory, stages of change model, social cognitive theory, theory of planned behaviour, social development theory, theory of gender and power, socioecological model of behaviour change, social inoculation theory, cognitive behaviour theory, health belief model Narrative, study characteristics table
Hobgen (2015) Systematic review USA, UK, Turkey Reduced unintended pregnancy, reduced unprotected sex, knowledge and attitudes related to contraceptive use, carrying condoms, condom use improved sexual health, HIV/AIDS status, STD status, Parent–child interventions to prevent unintended pregnancy, educational workshops and seminars, school- and university-based sexual education Domains of sexual health model*
Social cognitive theory, life skills theory
Narrative, figure
Jackson (2012) Systematic review South Africa, Namibia, USA Prevent substance use and risky sexual behaviour, Improved knowledge of reproductive biology, reduced HIV/STI transmission, reduced drug use, better healthy development, reduced alcohol consumption, intra-relationship violence, communication skills School-based, sex education curriculum Life skills theory, social cognitive theory Study characteristics table
Jennings (2014) Primary research USA Preventing unintended pregnancy, reducing HIV/STI infection School-based sex education programme Social learning theory, health belief model Narrative
Kilwein (2017) Systematic review USA Reduced alcohol related unprotected sex, reduced alcohol in conjunction with sex, number of sexual partners University-based, safe sex messaging, counselling, reminders Motivational interviewing, personalised normative feedback Narrative
Kraft (2014) Systematic review Egypt, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Tanzania, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Brazil, Malawi, Nigeria, Guatemala, El Salvador, Guinea, Ghana, Zimbabwe Family planning use, reproductive behaviour and health outcomes Couples counselling, community mobilisation. group meetings and workshops, educational activities, mass media campaigns Gender equality continuum* Narrative, figure
Kulathinal (2019) Primary research India Enhancing knowledge of, and practices related to, reversible contraceptives mHealth, mobile helpline, distribution of contraceptives Novel theory of change Narrative, figure
Levy (2019) Systematic review USA, Senegal, India, Egypt, Nepal, Vietnam, Ethiopia, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Zimbabwe, Zambia, South Africa, Kenya, Uganda Family planning, reduced IPV, nutrition, maternal and child health, hygiene, infectious disease Community engagement, education and awareness raising, promoting economic stability, enabling physical environment changes Gender transformative programming* Narrative, figure
Lohan (2015) Primary research UK, Ireland Reducing unintended adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive uptake Video-based, school-based education and activities Theory of planned behaviour Narrative
Lopez (2009) Systematic review USA, UK, Tanzania HIV/STD risk reduction, reduced unintended pregnancy, reduced unsafe sexual behaviours, influence knowledge, attitudes and norms around contraceptive use, school staff and parent knowledge, Increased self-efficacy and social support for contraceptive use, self-efficacy, intentions, behaviour planning, social and communication skills, positive gender norms and power School-based sex education curriculum, risk assessment and health behaviour training, parental education, community and school linkage, Social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action information-motivation-behaviour skills, social influence theory social learning theory, cognitive behavioural theory, protection motivation theory Narrative, study characteristics table
Lopez, Bernholc (2016) Systematic review USA, UK, Mexico, South Africa Increased contraceptive use, reduced unintended pregnancy School-based sex education curriculum Social cognitive theory, theory of planned behaviour; social learning theory, health belief model, cognitive behavioural theory, I-change model social influence theory, and theory of triadic influence Study characteristics table
Lopez, Grey (2016) Systematic review USA, Scotland, Guatemala, India, South Africa Improve contraceptive use (uptake, continuation), reduced unintended pregnancy School-based sex education, group-based education Social cognitive theory, social learning theory, social influence theory, theory of planned behaviour, theory of triadic influence; theory of gender and power, information-motivation-behaviour skills model, motivational interviewing; transtheoretical model, cognitive behavioural theory health belief model, I-change model Narrative
Lundgren (2019) Primary research Uganda Improved sexual health and rights, perception of contraceptive use, greater gender equality, reduced gender based violence Community mobilisation Social Constructivist Perspective, Gender Theory (Butler, 1990) Narrative
MacArthur (2018) Systematic review USA, South Africa Reduced risky health behaviours, reduced adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviour School-based, educational workshops, skills training workshops, computer-based counselling, conditional payments, home visits from health practitioners, family workshops, informational videos Novel theory of change*
Social learning theory, behavioural economics, cascading pathways model, cognitive behavioural theory, social learning theory, problem behaviour theory, social development theory, theory of triadic influence, life skills theory, theory of reasoned action framework, I-change model, social influence theory
Narrative, figure, study characteristics table
Mason (2016) Systematic review England, Scotland, Zimbabwe, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania Prevention of HIV/STI transmission, reduced unintended adolescent pregnancy, increased used of male condoms, delayed sexual initiation (debut), improved sexual behaviour knowledge and attitudes School-based sex education, peer education Novel theory of change* Narrative, figure
Mirzazadeh (2018) Systematic review USA STI/HIV prevention, adolescent sexual activity, condom use (at last intercourse, regularly) School-based sex education curriculum, parental education Natural opinion leader model, social learning theory, health belief model, social development model Narrative, study characteristics table
Moreno (2014) Systematic review China, India, Peru, Russia, Zimbabwe Reduced incidence of unprotected sex, reduced HIV/STI prevalence, reduced pregnancy incidence, improved behaviours knowledge and attitudes related to sex Community mobilisation, community leader engagement, group-based education Innovation diffusion theory, social learning theory Narrative
Mukamuyango (2020) Primary research Rwanda Family planning service use, long acting contraceptive (LARC) uptake, discussion of LARC Couple-based family planning counselling, individual motivational interviewing Motivational interviewing Narrative
Munro (2019) Primary research USA Contraception uptake, shared decision-making regarding contraceptive use, programme implementation feasibility Service provider training, video resources and decision aids Transtheoretical domains framework, COM-B Model Narrative
Munro (2017) Primary research
(conference paper)
USA Shared decision making in contraceptive uptake, intervention acceptability and feasibility Not specified Transtheoretical domains framework Narrative
Mwaikambo (2011) Systematic review Honduras, Nicaragua, and Mexico, Tanzania, Botswanan, Philippines Use of family planning services, knowledge and attitudes about family planning, discussions around family planning, intentions to use family planning, contraceptive use, unmet family planning need, reduced unintended pregnancies and abortion, total fertility rate School-based sex education curriculum Social learning theory, social cognitive theory Study characteristics table
NCT, Wagman (2014) Intervention protocol Uganda Reduced sexual risk behaviours, reduced non-marital partnerships, increased contraceptive use, reduced intimate partner violence, reduced HIV infection Community mobilisation Transtheoretical model (stages of change theory) Narrative
Nguyen (2013) Technical report Bangladesh Uptake of modern contraceptives, improved healthcare service provision, increased access to health services, skilled birth attendant, improved infant feeding behaviours Community outreach, service provision PerFORM framework, socio-ecological model Narrative, figure
Poobalan (2009) Systematic review USA, UK, Canada Reduced teen pregnancy, improved sexual health, reduced HIV/AIDS School/community-based education, lectures, role-plays, games, skills workshops Social learning theory, social cognitive theory, theory of planned behaviour, theory of reasoned action, health belief model, social inoculation theory Narrative
Pretorius (2015) Systematic review South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Democratic Republic of Congo Number of sexual partners, condom use, consistent condom use, communication about condom use, sexual activity, condom use skills, negotiation and communication skills around safe sex Group-based counselling Cognitive behaviour theory, social cognitive theory Narrative
Rink (2016) Primary research USA Reduced HIV/STI infection, reduced unintended pregnancy, improved relationship communication skills, condom use attitudes and self-efficacy, sexual decision making, sexual risk behaviours, relationship power Peer-based outreach, peer-led education, and skills building sessions Theory of reasoned action Narrative
Rodríguez (2013) Systematic review Belize, Namibia Improved knowledge, attitudes, and intentions to use condoms, Improved known access to condoms, Intention to use condoms, fewer sexual partners, delay of sexual debut Sexual education sessions/curriculum Framework for voluntary family planning programs that respect, protect, and fulfill human rights*
Social learning theory, social cognitive theory
Narrative, figure
Schriver (2017) Systematic review Countries not specified
All geographic regions represented
Reduced HIV/AIDS, reduced gender-based violence, healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy, adolescent and youth health, safe motherhood, infant and child health and nutrition, tuberculosis Health promotion interventions with gender transformative programming Novel theory of change, social learning theory, social cognitive theory, social behavioural change communication, theory of reasoned action, IMB skills model, diffusion of innovation theory Narrative
Schuler (2015) Primary research Guatemala Greater gender equitable attitudes, improved modern contraceptive knowledge, increased modern contraceptive use Interactive workshops, individual and couple-based workshops C-change social and behaviour change model, social ecological model Narrative, figure
Shattuck (2011) Primary research Malawi Improved contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive uptake Community outreach and mentoring programme, peer-led outreach, education, and skills training IMB skills model Narrative
Shelus (2018) Primary research Rwanda Increased contraceptive awareness, increased family planning uptake, intentions to use family planning Community mobilisation, educational entertainment radio programming, community discussion groups Social learning theory Narrative
Steinfield (2018) Primary research Uganda Improved understanding sexual power relations, promoting contraceptive use, promoting sexual health service use Social marketing Transformative gender justice framework Narrative, figure
Sweat (2012) Systematic review Mozambique, India, South Africa, Cameroon, Zambia Contraceptive (condom) uptake and use Social marketing, mass media Novel theory of change* Narrative, Figure
Tékponon Jikuagou Project (2013) Review commentary East Timor, Ghana, Tanzania, India, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mali, Rwanda, Vietnam, Bangladesh Family planning uptake and use, reduced HIV/STI prevalence, increased contraceptive use Individual education, group education, service provision, mass media, community mobilisation Socio-ecological model Narrative, figure
Tolli (2012) Systematic review Italy, Germany, Italy, Greece Contraceptive use, number of sexual partners, sexual health knowledge, relationship communication, contraceptive attitudes, condom use intentions Peer-education, school-based sex education, sexual education with HIV prevention Social learning theory, diffusion of innovation Study characteristics table
Underhill (2008) Systematic review USA HIV prevention, sexual abstinence, contraceptive use, sexual activity, delayed sexual debut, contraceptive/ STI knowledge School-based sexual health education and promotion, community facility educational campaigns, after school or saturday school educational sessions, parent–child assigned homework Social cognitive theory, social inoculation theory, social influence theory, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour, protection motivation theory, life skills theory, health belief model, self-efficacy theory, cognitive behaviour theory, IMB skills model Narrative, study characteristics table
Underhill (2007) Systematic review USA HIV prevention, sexual abstinence, unprotected sex, STI prevalence, pregnancy prevalence, condom use, delayed sexual initiation School-based abstinence promotion, parent–child education and engagement Novel theory of change, cognitive behaviour theory, social learning theory, social cognitive theory, theory of possible selves, social inoculation theory Narrative
Underwood (2015) Primary research Jordan Improved knowledge and more positive attitudes related to family planning and gender relations, more positive health messaging/preaching, greater exposure to positive FP-related messaging, increased likelihood of FP behaviour change related to messages Faith-based promotion of contraceptive use Carey communication model,
ideation theory
UNFPA (2014) Inception report Not specified Universal access and capacity for family planning provision and uptake Advocacy, service development, knowledge translation and dissemination, capacity development for FP service engagement Novel theory of change Narrative, figure
UNFPA (2012) Business case Zimbabwe Provision and uptake of family planning services Social marketing, mass media, community mobilisation and communication, subsisted contraceptive and FP services, improved service provision and integration Novel theory of change Narrative, figure
UNRWA (2018) Service implementation report Syria, Gaza, Jordan Gender inclusive service provision and practice for refugees, male participation in preconception care, improved understanding of family planning and reproductive health, improved parenting outcomes Educational campaign and workshops Novel theory of change Narrative, figure
USAID (2017) Guideline document USA, Bangladesh, Honduras, Ghana, Uganda, South Africa, Tanzania, Malawi, Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique Effective family planning service provision and engagement Education, counselling, peer-educators, social media information dissemination and service promotion, community mobilisation, mass-media campaigns, social marketing/ tailored communication Socio-ecological model, gender equality continuum Narrative
Wakhisi (2011) Systematic review USA, UK Increased parent–child communication about sex and contraception, increase behavioural self-control, improved knowledge of reproductive health, attitudes toward abstinence, remove barriers for abstinence, delayed sexual initiation/debut, increased condom use, self -efficacy to refuse unwanted sex, reduced unintended pregnancy, reduced unprotected sex School-based sex education, skills training at family planning centres, sex education for school teachers and parents Novel theory of change, social cognitive theory, social learning theory, cognitive behavioural theory, social influence theory, Carrera model, health belief model, theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behaviour Study characteristics table
Webb (2016) Systematic review USA Reduced prevalence of unplanned pregnancy, reduced unprotected sex, reduced STI prevalence Motivational interviewing, health counselling sessions Motivational interviewing, '5A’ framework for behavioural counselling, social cognitive theory Study characteristics table
Zapata (2015) Systematic review Not specified Reduced teen pregnancy, increased contraceptive use, use of more effective contraceptives, correct contraceptive use, contraceptive continuation, increased and repeat use of family planning services, increased knowledge, increased psychosocial determinants of contraceptive use Healthcare provider contraceptive counselling, peer-led counselling Novel theory of change*, motivational interviewing Narrative, figure
  1. *Theory of change applied to review synthesis