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Table 1 Characteristics of pregnant women and partners

From: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections among pregnant women and male partners in Dutch midwifery practices: prevalence, risk factors, and perinatal outcomes

  Pregnant women (n/%) Partners (n/%) Pregnant women with perinatal outcome data (n/%)
  N = 548 N = 425 N = 457
Demographics*    
Age    
 Median (years, IR) 27 (25–29) 29 (27–32) 27 (24–29)
 ≤ 20 32 (5.8) 9 (2.1) 26 (5.7)
 21–25 156 (28.8) 58 (13.6) 138 (30.2)
 26–30 360 (65.7) 199 (46.8) 293 (64.1)
 ≥ 31 0 (0) 157 (36.9) 0 (0)
Age difference (years) with partner    
 0–4 392 (71.5) NA 326 (71.3)
 5–9 96 (17.5)   84 (18.4)
 ≥ 10 33 (6.0)   27 (5.9)
Migration background    
 Western 412 (75.2) 333 (78.4) 345 (75.5)
 Non-Western 119 (21.7) 78 (18.4) 100 (21.9)
Highest level education    
 High 272 (49.6) 192 (45.2) 222 (48.6)
 Middle 225 (41.1) 181 (42.6) 196 (42.9)
 Low 34 (6.2) 37 (8.7) 27 (5.9)
Socioeconomic status (SES)    
 Very high and high SES 117 (21.4) NA 95 (20.8)
 Average SES 211 (38.5)   183 (40.0)
 Low and very low SES 197 (35.9)   164 (35.9)
Urbanity    
 Very high urbanity 103 (18.8) NA 83 (18.4)
 High urbanity 252 (46.0)   215 (47.0)
 Average to low urbanity 173 (31.6)   146 (31.9)
Province    
 Noord-Holland 198 (36.1) NA 173 (37.9)
 Zuid-Holland 120 (21.9)   89 (19.5)
 Other 210 (38.3)   183 (40.0)
Marital status    
 Married or living together 460 (83.9) NA 388 (84.9)
 Single or partner not living together 70 (12.8)   56 (12.3)
Duration relationship (years)    
 0–4 193 (35.2) NA 162 (35.4)
 5–9 221 (40.3)   185 (40.5)
 ≥ 10 84 (15.3)   70 (15.3)
Religion    
 No 330 (60.2) 278 (65.4) 276 (60.4)
 Yes, Catholic/Christian 169 (30.8) 104 (24.5) 142 (31.1)
 Yes, Islamic 27 (4.9) 15 (3.5) 23 (5.0)
 Yes, else 1 (0.2) 6 (1.4) 1 (0.2)
Partner (distant) relative    
No 501 (91.4) NA 420 (91.9)
 Yes 4 (0.7)   4 (0.9)
Migration background partner    
 Western 394 (71.9) NA 331 (72.4)
 Non-Western 114 (20.8)   95 (20.8)
Highest level education partner    
 High 230 (42.0) NA 185 (40.0)
 Low/middle 280 (51.1)   242 (53.0)
Pregnancy information    
Pregnancy planned and desired    
 Planned and desired 385 (70.3) NA 327 (71.6)
 Not planned, but desired 145 (26.5)   118 (25.8)
Gestational age at discovery (weeks)    
 0–4 243 (44.3) NA 196 (42.9)
 5–9 266 (48.5)   233 (51.0)
 ≥ 10 17 (3.1)   12 (2.6)
Gestational age at study inclusion    
 1st trimester (1–12 weeks) 168 (30.7) NA 143 (31.3)
 2nd trimester (13–27 weeks) 242 (44.2)   201 (44.0)
 3rd trimester (28–41 weeks) 115 (21.0)   97 (21.2)
BMI (pre-pregnancy, kg/m2)    
 < 18.5 30 (5.5) NA 25 (5.5)
 18.5–25 354 (64.6)   292 (63.9)
 25–30 94 (17.2)   83 (18.2)
 ≥ 30 40 (7.3) 34 (7.4)
Antibiotics < 3 months    
 Yes 45 (8.2) 27 (6.4) 35 (7.7)
 No 475 (86.7) 371 (87.3) 401 (87.7)
Gravity    
 0 302 (55.1) NA 242 (53.0)
 1 154 (28.1)   136 (29.8)
 2 or more 73 (13.3)   65 (14.2)
Parity    
 0 362 (66.1) NA 296 (64.8)
 1 130 (23.7)   114 (24.9)
 2 or more 20 (3.6)   18 (3.9)
Miscarriage    
 No 425 (77.6) NA 351 (76.8)
 Yes 81 (14.8)   71 (15.5)
Abortion    
 No 172 (31.4) NA 151 (33.0)
 Yes 50 (9.1)   46 (10.1)
Complication(s) previous newborn   NA  
 No 531 (96.9)   442 (96.7)
 Yes 17 (3.1)   15 (3.3)
Behavioural risk factors    
Age at sexual debut (years)    
 < 18 354 (64.6) 215 (50.6) 301 (65.9)
 ≥ 18 146 (26.6) 151 (35.5) 120 (26.3)
No. of sex partners in last 12 months    
 0–1 partner 492 (89.8) 377 (88.7) 415 (90.8)
 2 or more 24 (4.4) 13 (3.1) 19 (4.2)
New sex partner in last 3 months    
 No 521 (95.1) 398 (93.6) 438 (95.8)
 Yes 7 (1.3) 2 (0.5) 6 (1.3)
Condom use at start current relation    
 Always/mostly to regular 326 (59.5) 246 (57.9) 274 (60.0)
 Not always to never 191 (34.9) 147 (34.6) 159 (34.8)
STI-related symptoms    
 0 217 (39.6) 374 (88.0) 180 (39.4)
 1 171 (31.2) 24 (5.6) 145 (31.7)
 2 100 (18.2) 2 (0.5) 87 (19.0)
 3 or more 42 (7.7) 0 (0.0) 33 (7.2)
Previous STI test    
 No 237 (43.2) 248 (58.4) 202 (44.2)
 Yes 289 (52.7) 149 (35.1) 238 (52.1)
   History of STI 83 (28.7) 45 (30.2) 71 (29.8)
   No history of STI 198 (68.5) 101 (67.8) 161 (67.6)
Smoking    
 No, never 202 (36.9) 124 (29.2) 173 (37.9)
 In the past, not during pregnancy 208 (38.0) 169 (39.8) 169 (37.0)
 Yes, during pregnancy 120 (21.9) 108 (25.4) 102 (22.3)
  Yes, stopped since pregnant 77 (14.1) 13 (3.1) 65 (14.2)
  Yes, during pregnancy 43 (7.8) 95 (22.4) 37 (8.1)
Alcohol    
 No, never 51 (9.3) NA 41 (9.0)
 In the past, not during pregnancy 111 (20.3)   96 (21.0)
 Yes, during pregnancy 365 (66.6)   305 (69.0)
  Yes, stopped since pregnant 354 (64.6) 294 (64.4)
  Yes, continued since pregnancy 11 (2.0)   11 (2.4)
Drugs    
 No, never 343 (62.6) 217 (51.1) 293 (64.1)
 In the past, not during pregnancy 162 (29.6) 134 (31.5) 132 (28.9)
  Soft drugs only 111 (68.5) 81 (60.4) 90 (68.2)
  Hard drugs ± soft drugs 49 (30.2) 51 (38.1) 40 (30.3)
 Yes, during pregnancy 23 (4.2) 47 (11.1) 17 (3.7)
  Soft drugs only 17 (73.9) 22 (55.0) 13 (76.5)
  Hard drugs (or both) 6 (26.1) 18 (45.0) 4 (23.5)
  Yes, stopped since pregnant 22 (4.0) 7 (1.6) 17 (3.7)
  Yes, continued since pregnant 1 (0.2) 40 (9.4) 0 (0.0)
STIs (95% CI) 13 (2.4, 1.3–4.0) 10 (2.2, 1.0–4.0) 11 (2.4, 1.2–4.3)
 Chlamydia 10 (1.8, 0.9–3.3) 10 (2.2, 1.0–4.0) 9 (2.0, 0.9–3.7)
 Gonorrhoea 2 (0.4, 0.0–1.3) 1 (0.2, 0.0–1.3) 1 (0.2, 0.0–1.2)
 Trichomoniasis 2 (0.4, 0.0–1.3) 0 (0.0, 0.0–0.9) 1 (0.2, 0.0–1.2)
 More than 1 STI 1 (0.2, 0.0–1.2) 1 (0.2, 0.0–1.3) 0 (0.0, 0.0–0.9)
CT knowledge    
CT knowledge score (median, IQR) 9.0 (8.0–11.0) 9.0 (7.0–10.0) 9.0 (7.0–11.0)
 0–5 points (low score) 59 (10.8) 65 (15.3) 54 (11.8)
 6–9 points (middle score) 221 (40.3) 184 (43.3) 181 (39.6)
 10–12 points (high score) 249 (45.4) 153 (36.0) 209 (45.7)
Pregnancy outcomes    
Adverse perinatal outcome    
 No 397 (72.4)   397 (86.9)
 Yes 50 (9.1)   50 (10.9)
Prematurity (< 37 weeks)    
 No 417 (76.1)   417 (91.2)
 Yes 32 (5.8)   32 (7.0)
Premature rupture of membranes    
 No 433 (79.0)   433 (94.7)
 Yes 18 (3.3)   18 (3.9)
Low birthweight (< 2500 g)    
 No 426 (77.7)   426 (93.2)
 Yes 19 (3.5)   19 (4.2)
Small for gestational age    
 No 418 (76.3)   418 (91.5)
 Yes 28 (5.1)   28 (6.1)
  1. NA not applicable or not asked
  2. *Totals vary due to missing values. Information missing for 0.7 to 8.8% for questionnaire variables (exception: information on abortion was missing for 56%). Information missing for 0 to 7.7% for perinatal outcomes from pregnancy cards