Skip to main content

Table 2 Risk factors of women and partners associated with STI during pregnancy

From: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections among pregnant women and male partners in Dutch midwifery practices: prevalence, risk factors, and perinatal outcomes

Factor Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted ORa (95% CI) p-value
Age group: ref =  ≥ 21 years 1   1  
 ≤ 20 years 8.05 (2.33–27.75) 0.001 6.52 (1.11–38.33) 0.04
Migration background: ref = Western 1    
 Non-Western 5.09 (1.58–16.33) 0.006   
Migration background partner: ref = Western 1    
 Non-Western 9.84 (2.56—37.72) 0.001 9.34 (2.34–37.21) 0.002
Education: ref = high 1    
 Low/middleb 3.23 (0.86–12.06) 0.08   
Education partner: ref = high 1    
 Low/middleb 3.79 (0.81–17.70) 0.09
Marital status: ref = married/living together 1    
Single or partner not living together 4.98 (1.54–16.15) 0.008   
Duration relation: ref =  ≤ 5 years 1  
 0–4 years 3.79 (0.97–14.83) 0.06
Age at sexual debut: ref = 18 +  1    
 < 18 4.65 (0.60–36.35) 0.14
New sex partner < 3 months: ref = no 1    
 Yes 7.73 (0.86–69.71) 0.07   
Nr sex partners < 12 months: ref = 0–1 1    
 Two or more 12.10 (3.36–43.56) 0.0001 9.88 (2.08–46.91) 0.004
Vaginal discharge: ref = no 1    
 Yes 0.32 (0.07–1.49) 0.15
Pain or burning sensation when urinating: ref = no 1  
 Yes 3.23 (0.85–12.33) 0.09
History of STI: ref = not tested or no STI 1    
 1 or more STI 7.05 (2.31–21.53) 0.001
Partner history of STI: ref = not tested or no STI 1  
 1 or more STI 3.35 (0.89–12.61) 0.07
Smoking: ref = no never or not during pregnancy 1    
 Yes during pregnancy 3.54 (1.12–11.20) 0.03
Partner smoking: ref = no never or not during pregnancy 1  
 Yes during pregnancy 3.54 (0.93–13.45) 0.06
Drug use: ref = no never or not during pregnancy 1  
 Yes during pregnancy 4.71 (0.97–22.88) 0.05
Partner using drugs: ref = no never or not during pregnancy 1  
 Yes during pregnancy 7.09 (1.53–32.92) 0.01
Pregnancy planned: ref = yes 1  
 No 3.85 (1.20–12.35) 0.02
Antibiotic < 3 months: ref = no 1  
 Yes 5.70 (1.65–19.72) 0.006
  1. Non-significant variables or not available/applicable (NA) results are not shown: calendar year, age partner, age difference, SES, urbanity, province, gestational age in trimesters at study inclusion, gestational age at discovery of pregnancy, female religion, partner religion, antibiotic use < 3 months partner, partner complaints, duration of becoming pregnant in years, previous pregnancies, abortion(s), miscarriage(s), complications previous newborn, parity, gravity, vaginal bleeding, blood loss during or after sex, pain in lower abdomen, condom use, partner with new sex partner < 3 months, male number of sex partners in past 12 months, age of sexual debut partner, female alcohol use, female CT knowledge score, partner CT knowledge score, negative emotions with the test offer (female), test offer had no negative impact on me (female), STI diagnosis of the partner (highly correlated variable, but not included due to small numbers and inflated crude OR value)
  2. Multivariable model adjusted for: female age, female migration background, female education, number of partners < 12 months, history of STI, female smoking, antibiotic use
  3. Significant associations are shown in bold
  4. aadjusted by backward stepwise method; OR odds ratios; CI confidence interval; STI sexually transmitted infection(s)
  5. bCategories combined due to small numbers