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Table 3 Factors associated with adverse perinatal outcomes (APO)

From: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections among pregnant women and male partners in Dutch midwifery practices: prevalence, risk factors, and perinatal outcomes

Factor Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted ORa (95% CI) p-value
Migration background: ref = Western 1   1  
 Non-Western 1.51 (0.78–2.95) 0.22
Education: ref = high 1   1  
 Middle 1.72 (0.89–3.30) 0.1 1.44 (0.71–2.89) 0.31
 Low 4.16 (1.54–11.22) 0.005 3.36 (1.12–10.09) 0.03
Marital status: ref = married/living together 1    
 Single or not living with partner 2.11 (0.98–4.53) 0.06   
Duration relation: ref =  ≥ 5 years 1   1  
 0–4 years 2.82 (1.50–5.30) 0.001 2.75 (1.41–5.39) 0.003
Pain in lower abdomen: ref = no 1    
 Yes 1.72 (0.94–3.15) 0.08
Blood loss during or after sex: ref = no 1  
 Yes 0.24 (0.03–1.81) 0.17
Antibiotic < 3 months: ref = no 1    
 Yes 0.23 (0.03–1.71) 0.15   
BMI: ref = 18.5–25 1    
 < 18.5 2.33 (0.81–6.71) 0.12   
 25–30 0.83 (0.35–1.96) 0.67   
 ≥ 30 1.53 (0.55–4.25) 0.42   
Complications previous newborn: ref = no 1   1  
 Yes, 1 or more 7.92 (2.74–22.90) 0.001 10.49 (3.21–34.25) 0.0001
Nr sex partners < 12 months: ref = 0–1 1    
 2 or more 2.32 (0.74–7.31) 0.15   
Current STI: ref = no 1    
 Yes, 1 or more 0.88 (0.11–7.09) 0.9   
History of STI: ref = no 1    
 Yes, 1 or more 1.46 (0.69–3.08) 0.32   
  1. Non-significant (ns) variables or not available/applicable (NA) results are not shown: calendar year, female age, age partner, age difference, SES, urbanity, province, migration background partner, female religion, religion partner, education partner, pre-eclampsia (n = 18, 3.9%), female HSV infection (n = 4, 0.9%), male HSV infection (n = 18, 5.1%), gravity, parity, gestational age in trimesters at study inclusion, gestational age at discovery of pregnancy, planned pregnancy, miscarriage(s), abortion(s), female drug use, partner drug use, female smoking, partner smoking, female alcohol use, vaginal bleeding, pain or burning sensation when urinating (female), vaginal discharge, condom use in current relation, number of sex partners < 12 months (female), new sex partner < 3 months (female), partner is (distant) family, number of sex partners < 12 months (male), new sex partner < 3 months (male), age at sexual debut (female), partner having current STI, partner history of STI, partner antibiotic use < 3 months, female CT knowledge score, partner CT knowledge score
  2. Multivariable model adjusted for: female education, duration current relationship, complications previous newborn, female antibiotic use < 3 months, BMI
  3. Significant associations are shown in bold
  4. aAdjusted by backward stepwise method; OR odds ratios; CI confidence interval; STI sexually transmitted infection(s)