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Table 4 Factors associated with small for gestational age newborns

From: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections among pregnant women and male partners in Dutch midwifery practices: prevalence, risk factors, and perinatal outcomes

Factor Crude OR (95% CI) p-value Adjusted ORa (95% CI) p-value
Migration background women: ref = Western 1   1  
 Non-Western 3.64 (1.65–8.03) 0.01 4.41 (1.74–11.17) 0.002
Migration background partner: ref = Western 1    
 Non-Western 2.55 (1.11–5.89) 0.03   
Education women: ref = high 1   1  
 Middle 1.54 (0.64–3.74) 0.34 1.36 (0.50–3.71) 0.55
 Low 6.93 (2.24–21.47) 0.001 7.81 (2.01–30.27) 0.003
Education partner: ref = high 1    
 Middle 1.46 (0.58–3.65) 0.42
 Low 2.96 (0.92–9.55) 0.07
Marital status: ref = married/living together 1    
 Single or not living with partner 2.14 (0.82–5.56) 0.12   
Duration relation: ref =  ≥ 5 years 1  
 0–4 years 2.13 (0.94–4.81) 0.07
Province: ref = Noord-Holland 1    
 Zuid-Holland 0.19 (0.04–0.84) 0.03
 Else 0.37 (0.16–0.89) 0.03
Vaginal discharge: ref = no 1    
 Yes 0.37 (0.14–1.00) 0.05
Smokingb: ref = both never or not in pregnancy 1   1  
 Woman or partner in pregnancy 1.92 (0.67–5.50) 0.22 1.56 (0.51–4.81) 0.44
 Woman and partner in pregnancy 3.54 (1.27–9.84) 0.02 2.94 (1.01–8.84) 0.05
Drug use: ref = no never or not during pregnancy 1    
 Yes during pregnancy 3.49 (0.94–12.98) 0.06   
Gestational age at inclusion: ref = first trimester 1    
 Second trimester 0.40 (0.16–1.00) 0.05   
 Third trimester 0.63 (0.23–1.72) 0.36   
Gestational age at discovery pregnancy: ref = 0–5 weeks 1    
 5–10 weeks 1.89 (0.80–4.48) 0.15   
 ≥ 10 weeks 5.17 (0.96–27.94) 0.06   
Pregnancy planned: ref = yes 1    
 No 1.76 (0.78–3.98) 0.17   
Current STI, ref = no 1    
 Yes, 1 or more 1.68 (0.21–13.78) 0.63   
History of STI: ref = no 1    
 Yes, 1 or more 2.62 (1.14–6.05) 0.02   
  1. Significant associations are shown in bold
  2. aAdjusted by backward stepwise method; OR odds ratios; CI confidence interval; STI sexually transmitted infection(s). Non-significant (ns) variables or not available/applicable (NA) results are not shown: calendar year, female age, age partner, age difference, SES, urbanity, female religion, partner religion, pre-eclampsia, female HSV infection, partner HSV infection, parity, gravity, miscarriage(s), abortion(s),, female drug use, partner drug use, female alcohol use, partner history of STI, vaginal bleeding, pain or burning sensation when urinating (female), pain in lower abdomen, blood loss during or after sex, condom use in current relation, number of sex partners < 12 months (female), new sex partner < 3 months (female), partner is (distant) family, new sex partner < 3 months (male), age at sexual debut (female), female antibiotic use < 3 months, antibiotic use partner < 3 months, complications previous newborn, BMI, female CT knowledge score, partner CT knowledge score
  3. b Univariable: Smoking female OR 2.42 (CI 1.09–5.40), p = 0.03; Smoking male OR 2.55 (CI 1.08–6.00), p = 0.03. Multivariable model adjusted for: female migration background, female education, duration relationship, province, female history of STI, smoking during pregnancy, female drug use, pregnancy planned, stage of discovery pregnancy