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Table 3 Independent variables of the intention to undergo cervical cancer screening (n = 682)

From: Factors associated with the intention to undergo Pap smear testing in the rural areas of Indonesia: a health belief model

Variable included Intention to undergo cervical cancer screening
B SE Wald OR CI (95%)
Demographic factors
 Age − 0.01 0.01 1.88 0.99 0.97–1.00
Marital status
 Married 0.73 0.28 6.61 2.07* 1.19–3.61
 Widowed/divorced     1.0  
Level of educationa
 Low education − 0.47 0.21 5.00 0.63* 0.41–0.94
 Middle education     1.0  
 High education 1.27 0.17 59.35 3.58*** 2.59–4.95
Ethnicity
 Makassar − 0.36 0.24 2.14 0.70 0.43–1.13
 Non-Makassar     1.0  
Occupation
 Employed 0.03 0.16 0.04 1.03 0.76–1.41
 Unemployed     1.0  
Income level
 No income     1.0  
 Low income (< $200 US) − 0.68 0.18 14.45 0.50*** 0.35–0.72
 High income (≥ $200 US) 0.91 0.22 17.68 2.48*** 1.63–3.80
Religion
 Muslim − 0.91 0.79 1.32 0.40 0.08–1.90
 Christian     1.0  
Parity
 No children     1.0  
 Have children 0.12 0.28 0.18 1.12 0.65–1.94
Health characteristics
 Awareness of cervical cancer (Ref: no) 1.36 0.18 58.23 3.91*** 2.75–5.55
 Awareness of Pap smear test (Ref: no)      
 Previous experience of test 0.95 0.17 32.41 2.59*** 1.87–3.60
  Regular 2.32 0.73 10.04 10.23** 2.43–43.10
  Irregular     1.0  
  Never − 1.29 0.25 26.69 0.28*** 0.17–0.45
 Family history of cervical cancer (Ref: no) 1.66 0.54 9.56 5.25** 1.83–15.03
 Friends’ history of cervical cancer (Ref: no) 2.16 0.60 12.84 8.72*** 2.67–28.53
Health beliefs domain
 Perceived susceptibility − 0.04 0.03 2.09 0.96 0.90–1.02
 Perceived severity 0.05 0.01 10.29 1.05** 1.02–1.08
 Perceived benefits 0.05 0.01 18.75 1.05*** 1.03–1.08
 Perceived barriers − 0.03 0.01 14.71 0.97*** 0.95–0.98
 Health motivation 0.23 0.05 23.69 1.25*** 1.14–1.37
  1. SE standard error, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aLow Education: ≤ Elementary school); Middle Education: Junior and high school; High Education: ≥ College
  3. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001