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Table 1 Definitions and measures of sexual wellbeing outcome variables

From: Sexual wellbeing in early adolescence: a cross-sectional assessment among girls and boys in urban Indonesia

Variable by domain Survey question(s) and response options Measurement in analysis
Sexual literacy and communication   
Knowledge about pregnancy ∙ A girl can get pregnant the first time that she has sexual intercourse
∙ A girl can get pregnant after kissing or hugging
∙ A girl can swallow a pill every day to protect against pregnancy
∙ Using a condom can protect against pregnancy
∙ A girl can have a shot or injection that will protect against pregnancy
∙ A girl can use herbs to prevent a pregnancy
(yes, no, don’t know)
Continuous, mean score of correct answers (0–6)
Knowledge about HIV ∙ A boy/girl can get HIV the first time that he/she has sexual intercourse
∙ Using a condom can protect against HIV
∙ You can get HIV through kissing
∙ A girl or boy can swallow a pill before having sex that will protect against HIV
(yes, no, don’t know)
Continuous, mean score of correct answers (0–4)
SRHR knowledge Combining questions about pregnancy and HIV Continuous, mean total score (0–10)
Dichotomized into:
Low ≤ 50% correct
High > 50% correct
SRHR communication ∙ Have you talked with anyone about the body changes that happen as boys and girls grow up?
∙ Have you ever discussed the following topics with anyone?
 Sexual relationships
 Pregnancy and how it happens
 Contraception
(yes, no, don’t know)
Categorical
1 = talked about SRHR (puberty, sexual relationships, pregnancy, contraception) with someone
0 = did not talk
2 = don’t know
SRHR topics ever discussed (only among those who reported ever talking about SRHR) ∙ Body changes/puberty
∙ Sexual relations
∙ Pregnancy
∙ Contraceptives
Categorical
1 = talked about this topic with someone
0 = did not talk
2 = don’t know
Gender attitudes   
Sexual double standard (SDS) ∙ Boys have girlfriends to show off to their friends
∙ Adolescent boys fool girls into having sex
∙ Boys tell girls that they love them when they don’t
∙ Adolescent boys loose interest in a girl after they have sex with her
∙ Adolescent girls should avoid boys because they trick them into having sex
∙ Girls are the victims of rumors if they have boyfriends
(1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree)
Continuous, 6-item scale with composite score (mean) 1–5; higher scores = higher agreement
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.8
Dichotomized at the median into agree vs disagree
Gender stereotypical traits (GST) ∙ Boys should always defend themselves even if it means fighting
∙ It’s important for boys to show they are tough even if they are nervous inside
∙ Boys who behave like girls are considered weak
∙ Boys should be able to show their feelings without fear of being teased
∙ Boys should be raised to be tough so can overcome any difficulties in life
∙ A boy should always have the final say about decision with his girlfriend
∙ Girls are expected to be humble
∙ Girls should avoid raising their voice to be lady like
∙ Girls need their parents’ protection more than boys
(1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree)
Continuous, 7-item scale with composite score (mean) 1–5
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.72
Dichotomized at the median into agree vs disagree
Gender stereotypical roles (GSR) ∙ A woman’s role is taking care of her home and family. (GN39)
∙ A man should have the final word about decisions in the home. (GN40)
∙ Boys and girls should be equally responsible for household chores. (GN38)
∙ A woman should obey her husband in all matters. (GN41)
∙ Men should be the ones who bring money home for the family, not women. (GN44)
(1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree)
Continuous, 5-item scale with composite score (mean) 1–5
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.77
Dichotomized at the median into agree vs disagree
Attitudes towards gender-related teasing ∙ It is okay to tease a girl who acts like a boy
∙ It is okay to tease a boy who acts like a girl
(1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree)
Dichotomous
0 = disagree/neutral
1 = agree
Comfort with body and emerging sexuality   
Body satisfaction ∙ On the whole, I am satisfied with my body
∙ I like the way I look
∙ I like looking at my body
∙ I feel like I am beautiful/handsome
(1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree)
Continuous, 4-item scale with composite score (mean) 1–5
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.72
Dichotomous
0 = neg/neutral (≤ 3)
1 = positive (> 3)
Comfort with pubertal development ∙ I like the fact that I am becoming a man (boys)
∙ I like the fact that I am becoming a woman (girls)
(1 = strongly agree, 2 = agree, 3 = neither agree nor disagree, 4 = disagree, 5 = strongly disagree)
Categorical
0 = disagree
1 = neutral/neither
2 = agree
Feelings of guilt about sexuality ∙ Looking at myself naked when I am alone I would feel…
∙ If I were romantically attracted to someone else I would feel…
∙ If I were to touch the private parts of my body I would feel…
∙ If I had sexual feelings I would feel…
(1 = not guilty at all, 2 = not very guilty, 3 = a little guilty, 4 = somewhat guilty, 5 = very guilty)
Continuous, 4-item scale with composite score (mean) ranging from 1–5
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.65
Dichotomous
0 = low (< 3)
1 = high (≥ 3)
Normal to be curious about love/sexuality ∙ It is normal for adolescents to be curious about love and sexuality
(1 = not true at all, 2 = not very true, 3 = somewhat true, 4 = very true, don’t know)
Categorical
0 = no (1–2)
1 = yes (3–4)
2 = don’t know
Perceived relational self-efficacy   
Communicate romantic feelings How confident do you think you would be…
∙ Telling a boy or girl that you like them
(1 = not at all confident, 2 = not very confident, 3 = a little confident, 4 = somewhat confident, 5 = very confident)
Dichotomous
0 = low (1–2)
1 = high (3–5)
Say “no” to unwanted interaction How confident do you think you would be…
∙ Telling a boy or girl no if they were doing something that you don’t want
(1 = not at all confident, 2 = not very confident, 3 = a little confident, 4 = somewhat confident, 5 = very confident)
Dichotomous
0 = low (1–2)
1 = high (3–5)
Prevent pregnancy How confident do you think you would be…
∙ Talking to a boyfriend or girlfriend about contraception
∙ Obtaining information on prevention of pregnancy
∙ Getting contraception if you need it
(1 = not at all confident, 2 = not very confident, 3 = a little confident, 4 = somewhat confident, 5 = very confident)
Continuous, 3-item scale with composite score (mean) ranging from 1–5
Cronbach’s alpha = 0.81
Categorical
0 = low (1–2)
1 = high (3–5)
Freedom from peer bullying and violence   
Bullied by peers during last 6 months ∙ During the last six months, have you been teased or called names by someone?
(yes, by a girl; yes, by a boy; yes, by both boys and girls, don’t know)
Categorical based on sex of perpetrator
0 = no
1 = yes, both boys and girls
2 = yes, opposite sex only
Bullying due to gender last 6 months (only among those bullied) ∙ If you were teased or called names, do you think this was because…
 You are a girl
 You are a boy
 The person thought you were acting like a girl
 The person thought you were acting like a boy
(yes, no, don’t know)
Combined bullying due to being boy/girl with acting like opposite sex into “gender-related reason”
0 = other reason
1 = due to gender
Physical violence victimization by peers during last 6 months ∙ During the last 6 months, have you ever been slapped, hit or otherwise physically hurt by a boy or girl in a way that you did not want?
(yes, by a girl; yes, by a boy; yes, by both boys and girls, don’t know)
Categorical based on perpetrator sex
0 = no
1 = yes, both boys and girls
2 = yes, opposite sex only