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Table 4 Predictors of gestational weight gain in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2019

From: Patterns and predictors of gestational weight gain in Addis Ababa, Central Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study

  Proportions of GWG Inadequate vs Adequate Excess vs Adequate
Variable Inadequate GWG n(%) Adequate GWG n(%) Excess GWG n(%) Crude Odds Ratio (COR) Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) P-value for AOR Crude Odds Ratio (COR) Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) P-value for AOR
Educational status P-value = 0.184
 No formal education 27 (77.1) 7 (20.0) 1(2.9) 2.69 [1.04, 6.98] 2.16 [0.70, 6.66] 0.178 1.07 [0.10, 11.13] 1.20 [0.09, 16.86] 0.894
 Primary education (1–8) 100 (65.8) 44 (28.9) 8(5.3) 1.59 [0.88, 2.85] 1.34 [0.63, 2.84] 0.442 1.36 [0.38, 4.94] 1.60 [0.32, 7.83] 0.569
 Secondary education (9–12) 77 (74.0) 22 (21.2) 5 (4.8) 2.44 [1.26, 4.75] 1.63 [0.74, 3.60] 0.159 1.70 [0.41, 7.09] 1.66 [0.33, 8.41] 0.542
 Tertiary education 43 (55.8) 30 (39.0) 4 (5.2) Reference Reference   Reference Reference  
Wealth quartile P-value = 0.247
 Lowest 53 (74.7) 15 (21.1) 3 (4.2) Reference Reference   Reference Reference  
 Second 45 (59.2) 30 (39.5) 1 (1.3) 0.42 [0.20, 0.89] 0.39 [0.17, 0.86] 0.021 0.17 [0.02, 1.74] 0.09 [0.01, 1.10] 0.060
 Middle 53 (70.7) 18 (24.0) 4 (5.3) 0.83 [0.38, 1.82] 0.91 [0.39, 2.12] 0.832 1.11 [0.21, 5.76] 1.32 [0.22, 7.94] 0.762
 Fourth 53 (69.7) 18 (23.7) 5 (6.6) 0.83 [0.38, 1.82] 1.12 [0.46, 2.72] 0.806 1.39 [0.28, 6.79] 1.95 [0.33, 11.46] 0.459
 Highest 44 (62.0) 22 (31.0) 5 (7.0) 0.57 [0.26, 1.22] 0.83 [0.34, 2.01] 0.679 1.14 [0.24, 5.49] 1.63 [0.27, 9.93] 0.598
Occupational status P-value = 0.015
Employee 66 (55.5) 46 (38.7) 7 (5.9) Reference Reference   Reference Reference  
Do not have paid employment 140(76.1) 37 (20.1) 7 (3.8) 2.64 [1.56, 4.45] 2.17[1.16, 4.07] 0.016 1.24 [0.40, 3.86] 1.00 [0.26, 3.83] 0.998
Merchant 26 (66.7) 10 (25.6) 3 (7.7) 1.81 [0.80, 4.12] 2.14 [0.81, 5.61] 0.123 1.97 [0.43, 8.93] 1.58 [0.26, 9.68] 0.623
Other 16 (59.3) 10 (37.0) 1 (3.7) 1.12 [0.46, 2.68] 0.76 [0.29, 2.01] 0.585 0.66 [0.07, 5.95] 0.65 [0.06, 6.92] 0.723
Weight status
 Underweight 51 (75.0) 15 (22.1) 2 (2.9) 3.52 [1.62, 7.65] 3.30 [1.32, 8.24] 0.011 0.48 [0.09, 2.57] 0.25 [0.03, 1.97] 0.188
N ormal weight 169 (71.6) 59 (25.0) 8 (3.4) 2.97 [1.63, 5.39] 2.68 [1.37, 5.24] 0.004 0.49 [0.17, 1.44] 0.39 [0.11, 1.37] 0.141
 Overweight or obese 28 (43.1) 29 (44.6) 8 (12.3) Reference Reference   Reference Reference  
MUAC P-value = 0.187
 Low MUAC (< 23 cm) 49 (75.4) 12 (18.5) 4 (6.1) 1.85 [0.94, 3.63] 1.94 [0.87, 4.32] 0.103 2.10 [0.59, 7.42] 6.63 [1.38, 31.89] 0.018
 High MUAC (≥ 23 cm) 194 (65.6) 88 (29.7) 14 (4.7) Reference Reference   Reference Reference  
Perinatal depression P-value = 0.015
 Yes 26 (72.2) 5(13.9) 5 (13.9) 2.30 [0.86, 6.15] 2.56 [0.88, 7.46] 0.086 7.54 [1.92, 29.61] 12.50 [2.72, 57.54] 0.001
 No 222 (66.7) 98 (29.4) 13 (3.9) Reference Reference   Reference Reference  
Asking permission from partners for health care seeking P-value = 0.123
 Yes 112 (73.2) 34 (22.2) 7 (4.6) 1.65 [1.02, 2.67] 1.44 [0.83, 2.50] 0.191 1.27 [0.45, 3.58] 1.98 [0.59, 6.70] 0.270
 No 136 (63.3) 68 (31.6) 11 (5.1) Reference Reference   Reference Reference  
Age P-value = 0.965
 Less than 20 years 12 (66. 7) 6 (33.3) 0 0.83 [0.30, 2.28] NA NA NA NA
 20–29 years 198 (66.7) 82 (27.6) 17 (5.7) Reference NA NA Reference NA NA
 30–40 years 38 (70.4) 15 (27.8) 1 (1.8) 1.05 [0.55, 2.01] NA NA 0.32 [0.04, 2.60] NA NA
Partners’ educational status (369) P-value = 0.782
 No formal education 25 (83.3) 5(16.7) 0 2.43 [0.86, 6.90] NA NA NA NA
 Primary education (1–8) 62 (65.3) 27 (28.4) 6 (6.3) 1.12 [0.61, 2.05] NA NA 1.26 [0.36, 4.35] NA NA
 Secondary education (9–12) 91 (67.9) 37 (27.6) 6 (4.5) 1.19 [0.68, 2.09] NA NA 0.92 [0.27, 3.12] NA NA
 Tertiary education 70 (63.6) 34 (30.9) 6(5.5) Reference   NA Reference Reference  
Minimum dietary diversity P-value = 0.851
 Low dietary diversity 47 (70.1) 17 (25.4) 3 (4.5) 1.18 [0.64, 2.18] NA NA 1.01[0.26, 3.88] NA NA
 High dietary diversity 201(66.5) 86 (28.5) 15 (5.0) Reference NA NA Reference NA NA
Food insecurity P-value = 0.903
 Food secure 212 (67.1) 89 (28.2) 15 (4.7) Reference NA NA Reference NA NA
 Food insecure 33 (67.4) 13 (26.5) 3 (6.1) 1.07 [0.54, 2.12] NA NA 1.37 [0.35, 5.39] NA NA
Intimate partner violence P-value = 0.335
 Yes 44 (62.8) 24 (34.3) 2 (2.9) 0.71 [0.41, 1.24] NA NA 0.41 [0.09, 1.92] NA NA
 No 204 (68.2) 79 (26.4) 16 (5.4) Reference NA NA Reference NA NA
Type of pregnancy (363) P-value = 0.990
 Intended 221(67.0) 91 (27.6) 18(5.4.) Reference NA NA Reference NA NA
 Unintended 23 (69.7) 10 (30.3) 0 0.95 [0.43, 2.07] NA NA NA NA
Number of pregnancy (369) P-value = 0.333
 First pregnancy 116 (64.8) 55 (30.7) 8 (4.5) Reference NA NA Reference NA NA
 Second 80 (74.1) 25 (23.1) 3 (2.8) 1.52 [0.87, 2.63] NA NA 0.83 [0.20, 3.37] NA NA
 Third 36 (67.9) 13 (24.5) 4 (7.6) 1.31 [0.63, 2.67] NA NA 2.12 [0.55, 8.12] NA NA
 Fourth and above 16 (55.2) 10 (34.5) 3(10.3) 0.76[0.32, 1.78] NA NA 2.06 [0.47, 9.13] NA NA
Level of physical activity (369) P-value = 0.633
 Low 120 (68.6) 47 (26.8) 8 (4.6) 1.60 [0.77, 3.30] NA NA 2.55 [0.29, 22.10] NA NA
 Moderate 104 (67.5) 41 (26.6) 9 (5.9) 1.59 [0.76, 3.32] NA NA 3.29 [0.38, 28.24] NA NA
 High 24 (60.0) 15 (37.5) 1 (2.5) Reference NA NA Reference NA NA
  1. NA* not illegible to be included into multivariable regression because the p-values were > 0.25 in bi-variable regression