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Table1 Summary characteristics of studies investigating the association between social support and mental health problems (depression, anxiety and self-harm) during pregnancy (N = 66, from 2000–2019)

From: The relationship between social support and mental health problems during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

S. no. Author, country, publication year Type of support Source of support Sample size Setting Study design Measurement Measure of association
Mental health problems Social support
1 Abujilban SK., et al., Jordan, 2013 [58] General support Family/non-family 218 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS DUSOCS
(12 item)
r = − 0.022, P > 0.05
2 Adewuya AO., et al., Nigeria, 2007 [59] Emotional/instrumental support Partner 181 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS PSSS AOR: 6.08 (1.42, 26.04)
3 Agostini F., et al., Italy, 2015 [60] General support Partner/family/friend 404 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS MSPSS AOR: 1.06 (1.03, 1.08)
4 Akiki S., et al., UK, 2016 [61] General support Family 1992 Facility Longitudinal Anxiety: STAI PSS β = − 0.044, P = 0.029
Partner β = − 0.033, P = 0.0051
5 Anindyajati G., et al., Indonesia, 2017 [62] General support Partner/family 107 Community Cross-sectional Depression: LPGD KD-24 item AOR 0.21(0.05, 0.84)
6 Bayrampour H., et al., Canada, 2015 [63] General support Family/partner 3021 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS MOS-SSS (19 item) AOR 3.09 (1.65, 5.78)
Anxiety: STAI AOR 3.37 (2.14, 5.33)
7 Belay YB., et al., Ethiopia, 2018 [64] General support Partner 363 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: BDI MSSS AOR 4.76 (1.51, 14.28)
8 Bernard O., et al., Jamaica, 2018 [65] Emotional support Partner 3571 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS MSPSS AOR 3.14 (1.69, 5.84)
9 Biratu A., et al., Ethiopia, 2015 [66] General support Partner 422 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS PSS AOR 1.89 (1.06, 3.35)
10 Bisetegn TA., et al., Ethiopia, 2016 [67] General support Family/Partner 527 Community Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS OSSS-3 AOR 1.57 (0.79,3.11)
11 Cankorur vs., et al., Turkey, 2015 [68] Emotional/practical support Family/partner 730 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS CPQ AOR 1.07, (1.01, 1.15)
12 Chee C., et al., Singapore, 2005 [69] General support Family/partner 724 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS MOS-SSS
(19 item)
AOR 2.53 (1.07–6.02)
13 Cheng E., et al., USA, 2016 [70] General support Friend/partner/relatives 1764 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS PSS AOR: 3.1 (1.7, 5.7) (Project viva)
877 Anxiety: STAI AOR: 1.9 (1.1, 3.3) (Project access)
14 Clements AD., et al., USA, 2016 [71] General support Family/partner 106 Facility Longitudinal Depression: CESD PPP β = − 0.44, P < 0.001
(1st trimester)
β = − 0.33, P < 0.001
(2nd trimester)
15 Dibaba Y., et al., Ethiopia, 2013 [72] General support Family/partner 627 Community Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS MSSS AOR 4.34 (2.12, 9.1)
16 Dong X., et al., China, 2013 [73] General support Partner 520 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS OSSS-3 AOR: 1.75 (0.16–19.28),
Parents AOR: 0.56 (0.06–5.13),
Parents-in-law AOR: 0.74 (0.24–2.23)
17 Dudas R., et al., Hungary, 2012 [74] General support Partner 1719 Community Cross-sectional Depression: LQ MSPSS AOR: 1.79(1.32–1.89)
18 Duko B., et al., Ethiopia, 2019 [75] General support Partner/parents/parents-in-law 317 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS OSSS-3 AOR: 2.14 (1.49, 3.11)
19 Schetter DC., et al., Canada, 2016 [76] General support Family/partner 5271 Facility Longitudinal Anxiety: BIPS MOS-SSS (19 item) β = 0.08 (0.01, 0.15), P > 0.05
20 Fall A., et al., Canada, 2013 [57] General support Family 5337 Facility Longitudinal Depression: CES-D ASSI AOR: 4.47 (3.55–5.63)
21 Gao L., et al., China, 2019 [77] Emotional/Instrumental support Partner 278 Facility Cross-sectional Anxiety: SAS PSSS AOR: 2.86 (1.70, 4.83),
Depression: EPDS AOR: 2.56 (1.52, 4.30)
22 Golbasi Z., et al., Turkey, 2010 [78] Emotional/Instrumental support Family/partner/friend 258 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS MSPSS r = − 0.43; P < 0.001
23 Gourounti K., et al., Greece, 2013 [79] General support Family/friends/partner 165 Facility Cross-sectional Anxiety: STAI SSQ-6 β = 0.131 (0.19, 2.37)
24 Hain S., et al., Germany, 2016 [80] Emotional/instrumental support Family/partner/non-family 297 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS F-SozU K-14 r = − 0.45, p < 0.01
25 Herbell K., et al., USA, 2019 [81] General support Family/partner 82 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: CESD MOS-SSS (19 item) β = − 0.751, P < 0.001
26 Heyningen T., et al., South Africa, 2017 [82] Emotional/instrumental support Friends 376 Facility Cross-sectional Anxiety: MINI MSPSS AOR: 1.05 (1.01, 1.09)
27 Jeong H., et al., South Africa, 2013 [83] Emotional support Mother 1262 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS MSPSS AOR: 1.5 (1.31–1.71)
28 Lau Y., et al., China, 2011 [84] Emotional/tangible support Family 1609 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS ISEL AOR: 1.9 (1.582, 2.520)
29 Lee AM., et al., Hong Kong, 2007 [85] Emotional/instrumental support Partner 357 Facility Longitudinal Anxiety: HADS PSSS AOR: 1.72 (1.05, 2.85)
Depression: HADS AOR: 1.69 (1.01, 2.85)
30 Li Y., et al., China, 2017 [86] Emotional/instrumental support Partner 240 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS PSSS AOR 0.99 (0.94, 1.05)
31 Nath A.,et al., India, 2019 [87] Emotional/instrumental support Family/partner 380 Facility Cross-sectional Anxiety: PRT MSPSS AOR: 1.76 (1.04, 2.98)
32 Onah MN., et al., South Africa, 2016 [88] Emotional/instrumental support Family/friends/partner 376 Facility Cross-sectional Self-Harm: SIB MSPSS AOR: 1.07 (1.01, 1.15)
33 Pajulo M., et al., Finland, 2001 [89] General support Partner/parents/mother in-law/friend 391 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS SSQ-12 AOR: 4.2 (0.9, 20.2)
34 Rashid A., et al., Malaysia, 2017 [90] General support Partner/parents/parents-in-law 3000 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS OSSS-3 AOR: 2.16 (1.77, 2.64)
35 Rubertsson C.et al., Sweden, 2003 [91] General support Partner/parents/parents-in-law 608 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS OSSS-3 AOR: 6.9 (3.4, 13.9)
36 Shafaie FS., et al., Iran, 2017 [92] General support Family/Partner 372 Facility Cross-sectional Anxiety: DASS PRQ- 85 r = − 0.456, p < .001
Depression: DASS r = − 0.642, p < .001
37 Sheeba B., et al., India, 2019 [93] Emotional/instrumental support Family/friends/partner 280 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS MSPSS AOR: 1.785 (0.915, 3.48)
38 Sidebottom AC., et al., USA, 2017[94] General support Family/friend 2341 Facility Longitudinal Depression: PHQ-9 MSSI AOR: 1.85 (1.31, 2.60)
39 Spoozak L., et al., USA, 2008 [95] Emotional/instrumental support Mother/partner 783 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: CIDI MKSSI AOR: 2.39 (1.63, 3.52)
40 Stewart RC., et al., Malawi, 2014 [96] Emotional/instrumental support Family/partner/friend 503 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: DSM IV MSPSS AOR 1.11 (1.04, 1.17)
41 Xian T., et al., China, 2019 [97] General support Family/partner 1220 Facility Longitudinal Anxiety: HAMA SSRS-10 AOR: 5.09 (2.41, 10.77)
Depression: SDS AOR 3.18 (1.46, 6.96)
42 Verreault N., et al., Canada, 2014 [98] General support Family/partner/friends 364 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS MOS-SSS (19 item) β: − 0.32, P < 0.001
43 Woldetensay YK.,et al., Ethiopia, 2018 [99] General support Family/friends/partner 4680 Community Longitudinal Depression: PHQ-9 MSSS AOR: 1.63 (1.31–2.02)
44 Yanikkerem E., et al., Turkey, 2013 [100] Emotional/instrumental support Partner 651 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: BDI PSSS β = 2.42, (0.707, 4.135)
45 Zeng Y., et al., China, 2015 [101] Emotional/instrumental support Family/partner/friend 292 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: SDS SSRS-10 AOR 1.08 (1.03, 1.13)
46 Sahile MA., et al., Ethiopia, 2017 [102] General support Partner/parents/parents-in-law 231 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: BDI OSSS-3 AOR: 2.63 (0.34, 20
47 Records C., et al., USA, 2007 [103] Emotional/instrumental support Family/friends/partner 139 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: CESD MSPSS β = 1.64, P < 0.001
48 Marchesi C., et al., Italy, 2014 [104] General support Family/friends/partner 277 Facility Longitudinal Anxiety: HADS ASSI AOR: 4.2 (1.1, 15.5)
49 Waqas A., et al., Pakistan, 2015 [105] General support Family/friend/
partner/others
500 Facility Cross-sectional Anxiety-HADS SPS r =  − 0.433, P < 0.001
Depression-HADS r =  − 0.453, P < 0.001
50 Westdahl C., et al., USA, 2007 [106] General support Family/parent 1047 Facility Longitudinal Depression: CESD SSRS-10 AOR: 2.29 (1.21, 4.33)
51 Nasreen HE., et al., Bangladesh, 2011 [107] General support Partner/parents/parents-in-law 720 Community Longitudinal Depression: EPDS OSSS-3 AOR: 2.23 (2.12, 3.62)
Anxiety: STAI β: -1.1447, P < 0.05
52 Leigh B., et al., Australia, 2008 [39] General support Family/friend/partner/others 367 Facility Longitudinal Depression: BDI SPS β = − 0.18, P < 0.001
53 Martini J., et al., Germany, 2015 [108] General support Family/friends/partner 306 Community Longitudinal Anxiety: CIDI-V SSQ-12 AOR: 2.27 (1.42, 3.70)
Depression: CIDI V AOR: 2.43, (1.19, 5)
54 Rubertsson C. et al., Sweden, 2003 [91] General support Partner/parent/parents-in-law 3011 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS OSSS-3 AOR: 4.4 (2.7, 7.4)
55 Huang M., et al., Taiwan, 2019 [109] General support Family/friends/partner 158 Facility Longitudinal Anxiety: STAI MSSS β =  − 0.79(− 1.16, − 0.42)
Depression: EPDS β =  − 0.44 (− 0.63, − 0.24)
56 Jesse ED., et l, USA, 2005 [110] General support Partner/others 130 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: BDI PPP AOR:1(0.98,1.02),P > 0.05
57 Blaney NT., et al., USA, 2004 [111] General support Friend/partner/relatives 325 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: CESD PSS r = − 0.25, P < 0.001
58 Glazier RH., et al., Canada, 2004 [112] Emotional/instrumental support Family/friends/partner 2052 Facility Longitudinal Depression: CESD, MSPSS r = − 7.38, P < 0.01
Longitudinal Anxiety: STAI r = − 7.34, P < 0.01
59 Senturk V., et al., 2011 [113] General support Partner 772 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS CPQ β = − 2.6 (− 3.6, − 1.7)
Emotional support Mother in-low β = − 2.6,95%CI (-4.6,-1.9)
Practical support β = -0.8,95%CI (-1.4,-0.3)
60 Gausia k., et al., Bangladesh, 2009 [18] General support Mother in-low 361 Community Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS PPP AOR:2.41(1.31, 4.45)
Partner AOR: 8.26 (1.66, 41)
61 Shidhaye P., et al., India, 2017 [114] General support Friend/partner/relatives 302 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS PSS AOR: 3.33 (1.42, 5)
62 Hartley M., et al., South Africa, 2011 [115] Emotional/practical support Family/partner 1062 Facility Longitudinal Depression: EPDS CPQ AOR: 1.13 (1.03, 1.25)
63 Rwakarema M et al., Tanzania, 2017 [116] General support Family/friends/partner 397 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS MSSS AOR: 1.41 (0.60, 3.28)
64 Heyningen T et al., South Africa, 2016 [117] Emotional/instrumental support Family/friends/partner 376 Facility Cross-sectional Depression: EPDS MSPSS AOR: 1.14 (1.06, 1.22)
65 e Couto T., et al., Brazil, 2016 [43] General support Partner/parents/parents-in-law 255 Facility Cross-sectional Self-harm: MINI OSSS-3 AOR: 1.75 (0.62, 5),
66 Pinheiro RT., et al., Brazil, 2012 [118] Emotional/instrumental support Family/friends/partner 871 Facility Cross-sectional Self-harm: MINI MOS-SSS
(7 item)
AOR: 3.03 (1.78, 5.26)
67 Supraja, TA., et al., 2016 India [119] General support Spouse, other family members, and friends 462 Facility Cross-sectional Self-harm: SBQ-R MSSS-8 item AOR: 1.17 (1.02, 2.35)