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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of odds ratios of low social support in the association between social support and antenatal depression (N = 45, 2000–2019), (random effect model)

From: The relationship between social support and mental health problems during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable No. of studies Pooled AOR
(95% CI)
Heterogeneity within the study (I2 and Q)
Q value I2, P-value
Study setting     
Facility 36 1.63 (1.49, 1.77) 502.3 93.0%, p < 0.001
Community 9 2.21 (1.25, 3.93) 792.0 99.0%, p < 0.001
Income of country     
High-income 16 1.98 (1.72, 2.27) 367 95.9%, p < 0.001
Middle-income 14 1.33 (1.19, 1.50) 115.7 88.8%, p < 0.001
Low-income 15 2.26 (1.36, 3.76) 1431.5 99.0%, p < 0.001
Study design     
Cross-sectional study 26 1.84 (1.4, 2.41) 3534.2 99.3%, p < 0.001
Longitudinal study 19 2.1 (1.78, 2.48) 339.6 94.7%, p < 0.001
Median sample sizea     
 < 520 30 1.99 (1.63, 2.41) 3833.8 99.2%, p < 0.001
 >  = 520 15 2.02 (1.59, 2.55) 126.5 88.9%, p < 0.001
Publication year     
2000–2005 3 4.37 (2.20, 8.71) 3.13 36.0%, p = 0.209
2006–2010 7 2.20 (1.31, 3.71) 50.3 88.1%, p < 0.001
2011–2015 15 1.67 (1.43, 1.95) 295.8 95.3%, p < 0.001
2016–2019 20 2.06 (1.43, 2.97) 2598.4 99.3%, p < 0.001
Depression assessment tool
Screening 41 2.07 (1.74, 2.46) 3940.9 99.0%, p < 0.001
Diagnostic 4 1.29 (1.09, 1.52) 19.25 84.4%, p < 0.001
  1. aCut of point is based on the median of sample size (median = 520)