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Table 4 Subgroup analysis of odds ratios of association between low social support and antenatal anxiety (N = 9, 2000–2019) (random effect model)

From: The relationship between social support and mental health problems during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variable No. of studies Pooled AOR
(95% CI)
Heterogeneity within the study
(I2 and Q)
Q value I2, P-value
Income of country     
High-income 5 2.34 (1.76, 3.11) 5.23 23.6%, p = 0.264
Low and middle-income 4 2.15 (1.06, 4.38) 34.55 91.3%, p < 0.001
Study design     
Cross-sectional study 3 2.27 (1.46, 3.53) 17.68 88.7%, p < 0.001
Longitudinal study 6 2.59 (1.87, 3.57) 8.97 44.2%, P = 0.11
Median sample sizea     
< 376 4 2.28 (1.72, 3.02) 2.77 0%, P = 0.429
>  = 376 5 2.17 (1.16, 4.07) 49.53 91.9%, p < 0.001
Publication year     
2015+  7 2.27 (1.36, 3.78) 72.45 91.7%, P < 0.001
Before 2015 2 2.16 (1.007, 4.63) 1.53 34.7%, P = 0.216
  1. aCut of point is based on the Median of sample size (median = 376)