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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of participants according to fertility status and medical help-seeking

From: Household income and medical help-seeking for fertility problems among a representative population in Japan

  Fertile (n = 3812) Subfertile (n = 2253) pa Subfertile (aforementioned) pa
Non-help-seekers (n = 1071) Help-seekers (n = 1154)
n % n % n % n %
Wife’s age, years
 ≤ 29 310 8.1 135 6.0 0.80 87 8.1 47 4.1 < 0.001
 30–34 516 14 339 15 183 17 151 13
 35–39 763 20 542 24 272 25 264 23
 ≥ 40 2223 58 1237 55 529 49 692 60
Husband’s age, years
 ≤ 29 210 5.6 95 4.2 0.40 63 5.9 30 2.6  < 0.001
 30–34 446 12 290 13 173 16 114 10
 35–39 621 16 447 20 227 21 215 19
 ≥ 40 2504 66 1,404 63 599 56 787 69
Length of the marriage, years
 ≤ 4 546 15 415 19 < 0.001 248 24 161 14 < 0.001
 5–9 703 19 557 25 275 26 277 25
 10–14 760 20 512 23 219 21 287 25
 ≥ 15 1708 46 720 33 305 29 405 36
Wife’s educational level
 High school education or less 1586 42 694 31 < 0.001 359 34 326 28 0.01
 Vocational or junior college education 1473 39 985 44 452 42 520 45
 University education or higher 747 20 568 25 257 24 305 26
 Other 5 0.1 2 0.1 0 0.0 2 0.2
Husband’s educational level
 High school education or less 1659 44 788 35 < 0.001 416 39 362 31 < 0.001
 Vocational or junior college education 670 18 428 19 201 19 223 19
 University education or higher 1451 38 1025 46 446 42 565 49
 Other 9 0.2 2 0.1 0 0.0 2 0.2
Wife’s employment status
 Full-time worker 849 23 577 26 < 0.001 283 27 286 25 0.78
 Part-time worker 1543 41 772 35 361 34 400 35
 Self-employed 222 5.9 119 5.4 58 5.5 61 5.3
 Unemployed 1125 30 752 34 350 33 394 35
Husband’s employment status
 Full-time worker 2829 79 1,739 81 0.20 815 81 905 82 0.90
 Part-time worker 241 6.7 137 6.4 69 6.9 67 6.0
 Self-employed 448 13 235 11 110 11 122 11
 Unemployed 57 1.6 27 1.3 13 1.3 14 1.3
Household incomeb
 Low 659 18 330 16 0.001 186 19 139 13 < 0.001
 Lower-middle 945 26 527 25 263 26 258 24
 Upper-middle 844 23 519 24 249 25 268 24
 High 1145 32 743 35 302 30 429 39
Number of existing children
 0 404 11 507 23 < 0.001 241 23 259 23 0.06
 1 832 22 738 33 326 31 404 35
 2 1812 48 785 35 381 36 394 34
 ≥ 3 740 20 211 9.4 118 11 92 8.0
Living with parents
 Yes 1076 29 562 25 0.004 270 26 283 25 0.80
 No 2639 71 1645 75 785 74 844 75
Desire to have a child
 Yes 1552 42 1503 68 < 0.001 709 68 780 69 0.51
 No 2170 58 705 32 341 32 353 31
Residential region
 Hokkaido 129 3.4 60 2.7 0.27 31 2.9 27 2.3 0.44
 Tohoku 237 6.2 148 6.6 79 7.4 68 5.9
 Kanto 1262 33 776 34 375 35 393 34
 Chubu 794 21 480 21 231 22 244 21
 Kinki 625 16 354 16 154 14 195 17
 Chugoku/Shikoku 351 9.2 223 10 99 9.2 121 10
 Kyushu/Okinawa 414 11 212 9.4 102 10 106 9.2
Population size and density
 Non-densely inhabited district 1089 29 591 26 0.06 298 28 287 25 0.01
 < 200,000 inhabitants 909 24 555 25 286 27 260 23
 200,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants 1089 29 643 29 279 26 358 31
 > 1,000,000 inhabitants 725 19 464 21 208 19 249 22
  1. JPY Japanese Yen
  2. aChi-squared test for nominal variables and Wilcoxon-type test for trend for ordinal variables
  3. bCategorized into four groups: low (< 4 million JPY), lower-middle (≥ 4 million JPY to < 6 million JPY), upper-middle (≥ 6 million JPY to < 8 million JPY), and high (≥ 8 million JPY)