Skip to main content

Table 2 Logistic regression analyses for factors associated with medical help-seeking

From: Household income and medical help-seeking for fertility problems among a representative population in Japan

  Univariable (n = 2225) Multivariable (complete case analysis) (n = 1867) Multivariable (multiple imputation) (n = 2253)
Odds ratio 95% CI p Odds ratio 95% CI p Odds ratio 95% CI p
Household incomea
 Low Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Lower-middle 1.31 0.99–1.73 0.06 1.30 0.92–1.83 0.14 1.28 0.95–1.73 0.10
 Upper-middle 1.44 1.09–1.90 0.01 1.44 1.01–2.06 0.04 1.37 1.00–1.86 0.05
 High 1.90 1.46–2.48 < 0.001 1.92 1.32–2.78 0.001 1.78 1.29–2.47 < 0.001
Wife’s age, years
 ≤ 29 Ref    Ref    Ref   
 30–34 1.53 1.01–2.31 0.05 1.15 0.71–1.86 0.58 1.15 0.74–1.79 0.52
 35–39 1.80 1.21–2.66 0.003 1.14 0.71–1.86 0.59 1.16 0.74–1.79 0.52
 ≥ 40 2.42 1.67–3.51 < 0.001 1.22 0.74–2.01 0.45 1.28 0.81–2.02 0.29
Husband’s age, years
 ≤ 29 Ref   
 30–34 1.38 0.84–2.27 0.20
 35–39 1.99 1.24–3.19 0.004
 ≥ 40 2.76 1.76–4.32 < 0.001
Length of the marriage, years
 ≤ 4 Ref    Ref    Ref   
 5–9 1.55 1.20–2.01 0.001 1.85 1.34–2.55 < 0.001 1.74 1.30–2.33 < 0.001
 10–14 2.02 1.55–2.63 < 0.001 2.33 1.61–3.38 < 0.001 2.30 1.63–3.23 < 0.001
 ≥ 15 2.05 1.60–2.62 < 0.001 2.42 1.61–3.64 < 0.001 2.47 1.70–3.59 < 0.001
Wife’s educational level
 High school education or less Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Vocational or junior college education 1.27 1.04–1.54 0.02 1.13 0.89–1.43 0.32 1.11 0.90–1.38 0.32
 University education or higher 1.31 1.05–1.63 0.02 1.11 0.83–1.48 0.48 1.16 0.89–1.51 0.27
Husband’s educational level
 High school education or less Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Vocational or junior college education 1.27 1.01–1.62 0.05 1.28 0.98–1.69 0.07 1.25 0.97–1.61 0.08
 University education or higher 1.46 1.21–1.76 < 0.001 1.22 0.96–1.56 0.10 1.27 1.02–1.59 0.03
Wife’s employment status
 Full-time worker Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Part-time worker 1.10 0.88–1.36 0.41 1.28 0.98–1.69 0.07 1.23 0.96–1.59 0.10
 Self-employed 1.04 0.70–1.55 0.84 1.14 0.71–1.83 0.60 1.03 0.66–1.60 0.89
 Unemployed 1.11 0.90–1.39 0.33 1.48 1.12–1.95 0.01 1.39 1.08–1.79 0.01
Husband’s employment status
 Full-time worker Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Part-time worker 0.87 0.62–1.24 0.45 0.79 0.53–1.18 0.24 0.85 0.58–1.25 0.41
 Self-employed 1.00 0.76–1.31 0.99 0.98 0.70–1.38 0.92 1.10 0.80–1.50 0.55
 Unemployed 0.97 0.45–2.08 0.94 1.11 0.47–2.63 0.82 1.33 0.59–3.00 0.49
Number of existing children
 0 Ref    Ref    Ref   
 1 1.15 0.92–1.45 0.22 1.02 0.78–1.32 0.90 0.96 0.75–1.22 0.73
 2 0.96 0.77–1.20 0.74 0.62 0.46–0.84 0.002 0.62 0.47–0.82 0.001
 ≥ 3 0.73 0.52–1.00 0.05 0.48 0.31–0.74 0.001 0.46 0.31–0.67  < 0.001
Living with parents
 No Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Yes 0.97 0.80–1.18 0.80 1.13 0.90–1.42 0.30 1.11 0.90–1.37 0.32
Desire to have a child
 No Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Yes 1.06 0.89–1.27 0.51 1.01 0.78–1.31 0.92 0.98 0.78–1.23 0.85
Residential region
 Hokkaido Ref    Ref    Ref   
 Tohoku 0.99 0.54–1.82 0.97 0.70 0.34–1.43 0.32 0.83 0.45–1.56 0.57
 Kanto 1.20 0.70–2.05 0.50 0.69 0.36–1.32 0.26 0.78 0.45–1.36 0.38
 Chubu 1.21 0.70–2.09 0.49 0.82 0.43–1.58 0.55 0.88 0.50–1.54 0.65
 Kinki 1.45 0.83–2.54 0.19 0.92 0.47–1.78 0.80 1.02 0.58–1.81 0.95
 Chugoku/Shikoku 1.40 0.79–2.51 0.25 0.94 0.47–1.87 0.86 1.12 0.62–2.03 0.72
 Kyushu/Okinawa 1.19 0.67–2.14 0.55 0.88 0.44–1.76 0.72 1.05 0.58–1.91 0.87
Population size and density
 Non-densely inhabited district Ref    Ref    Ref   
 < 200,000 inhabitants 0.94 0.75–1.19 0.63 0.93 0.70–1.22 0.58 0.95 0.74–1.22 0.68
 200,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants 1.33 1.06–1.67 0.01 1.18 0.91–1.54 0.21 1.18 0.93–1.50 0.18
 > 1,000,000 inhabitants 1.24 0.97–1.59 0.08 1.07 0.79–1.44 0.68 1.09 0.83–1.43 0.56
  1. CI confidence interval, JPY Japanese Yen, ref reference
  2. aCategorized into four groups: low (< 4 million JPY), lower-middle (≥ 4 million JPY to < 6 million JPY), upper-middle (≥ 6 million JPY to < 8 million JPY), and high (≥ 8 million JPY)