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Table 4 Baseline and post intervention outcomes from survey among girls menstruating at baseline and interviewed at endline

From: Effects of sanitary pad distribution and reproductive health education on upper primary school attendance and reproductive health knowledge and attitudes in Kenya: a cluster randomized controlled trial

  Arm 1
Control
Arm 2
Pads only
Arm 3
RH only
Arm 4
Pads and RH
School engagement     
School engagementα (score 0–8):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 6.5 (1.4) n = 627 6.6 (1.4) n = 632 6.5 (1.4) n = 629 6.5 (1.3) n = 656
 Endline (N = 2432) (mean (SD) n) 6.8 (1.4) n = 593 6.8 (1.3) n = 606 6.8 (1.3) n = 600 6.9 (1.3) n = 633
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0214
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference − 0.05 (− 0.33, 0.22) 0.14 (− 0.14, 0.42) 0.16 (− 0.14, 0.47)
P-value   0.703 0.329 0.294
Menstruation management     
Has enough pads (= 1):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (n (%) N) 136 (21.7), N = 627 126 (19.9), N = 632 119 (18.9), N = 629 155 (23.6), N = 656
 Endline (N = 2541) (n (%) N) 350 (55.9), N = 626 521 (82.4), N = 632 371 (59.1), N = 628 543 (82.9), N = 655
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.102
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference 0.28 (0.20, 0.36) 0.06 (− 0.03, 0.14) 0.25 (0.17, 0.33)
P-value    < 0.001 0.175  < 0.001
Reporting leaking (= 1):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (n (%) N) 213 (34.0), N = 627 240 (38.0), N = 632 235 (37.4), N = 629 263 (40.1), N = 656
 Endline (N = 2432) (n (%) N) 161 (27.2), N = 593 125 (20.6), N = 606 143 (23.8), N = 600 138 (21.8), N = 633
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0139
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference − 0.10 (− 0.18, − 0.03) − 0.06 (− 0.13, 0.01) − 0.11 (− 0.20, − 0.02)
P-value   0.005 0.118 0.014
Reproductive health attitudes     
Menstruation attitudes# (score:0–12):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 7.7 (1.7) n = 627 7.6 (1.8) n = 632 7.5 (1.8) n = 629 7.6 (1.7) n = 656
 Endline (N = 2432) (mean (SD) n) 8.1 (1.6) n = 593 8.2 (1.6) n = 606 8.6 (1.6) n = 600 8.9 (1.6) n = 633
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0714
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference 0.16 (− 0.10, 0.41) 0.63 (0.40, 0.86) 0.85 (0.64, 1.07)
P-value   0.230  < 0.001  < 0.001
Reproductive health knowledge     
Pregnancy knowledge (score:0–4):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 1.9 (0.9) n = 627 2.0 (0.8) n = 632 1.9 (0.9) n = 629 1.8 (0.9) n = 656
 Endline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 2.2 (0.9) n = 627 2.1 (0.9) n = 632 2.2 (0.9) n = 629 2.3 (0.9) n = 656
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0412
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference − 0.15 (− 0.31, 0.01) 0.01 (− 0.16, 0.17) 0.18 (0.02, 0.34)
P-value   0.067 0.949 0.028
Can spontaneously name a method of modern contraception (= 1):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (n (%) N) 321 (51.2), n = 321 357 (56.5), n = 357 326 (51.8), n = 326 349 (53.2), n = 349
 Endline (N = 2544) (n (%) N) 404 (64.4), n = 404 425 (67.2), n = 425 463 (73.6), n = 463 465 (70.9), n = 465
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0150
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference − 0.03 (− 0.11, 0.06) 0.09 (0.01, 0.17) 0.04 (− 0.03, 0.12)
P-value   0.524 0.036 0.275
STI knowledge score (score:0–4):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 0.4 (0.9) n = 627 0.5 (0.9) n = 632 0.4 (0.9) n = 629 0.4 (1.0) n = 656
 Endline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 1.2 (1.2) n = 627 1.2 (1.2) n = 632 1.5 (1.2) n = 629 1.5 (1.2) n = 656
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0536
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference − 0.01 (− 0.19, 0.16) 0.31 (0.12, 0.49) 0.28 (0.10, 0.45)
P-value   0.873 0.002 0.002
HIV knowledge score (score:0–11):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 7.8 (1.8) n = 627 8.0 (1.8) n = 632 8.0 (1.8) n = 629 8.0 (1.7) n = 656
 Endline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 8.4 (1.7) n = 627 8.3 (1.8) n = 632 8.5 (1.7) n = 629 8.4 (1.6) n = 656
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0215
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference − 0.30 (− 0.61, 0.01) − 0.05 (− 0.34. 0.24) − 0.18 (− 0.43, 0 .08)
P-value   0.058 0.728 0.170
Gender norms     
Gender norms in marriage (score:0–5):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 3.3 (1.1) n = 627 3.3 (1.2) n = 632 3.2 (1.2) n = 629 3.2 (1.1) n = 656
 Endline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 3.0 (1.2) n = 627 3.0 (1.2) n = 632 2.9 (1.2) n = 629 3.0 (1.2) n = 656
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0283
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference 0.01 (− 0.20, 0.22) 0.08 (− 0.13, 0.29) 0.10 (− 0.12, 0.31)
P-value   0.921 0.455 0.374
Equitable adolescent gender norms (score:0–12):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 5.7 (1.9) n = 627 5.5 (2.0) n = 632 5.6 (1.9) n = 629 5.5 (2.0) n = 656
 Endline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 6.2 (1.8) n = 627 6.1 (1.8) n = 632 6.6 (1.9) n = 629 6.6 (1.8) n = 656
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0507
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference 0.08 (− 0.25, 0.40) 0.45 (0.15, 0.74) 0.57 (0.30, 0.85)
P-value   0.640 0.003  < 0.001
Gendered sexual norms (score:0–5):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 1.8 (1.2) n = 627 1.8 (1.1) n = 632 1.7 (1.2) n = 629 1.8 (1.2) n = 656
 Endline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 1.9 (1.2) n = 627 1.9 (1.2) n = 632 2.2 (1.3) n = 629 2.2 (1.3) n = 656
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0640
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference 0.02 (− 0.18, 0.21) 0.46 (0.26, 0.65) 0.36 (0.15, 0.57)
P-value   0.878  < 0.001 0.001
Agrees with IPV (= 1):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (n (%) N) 458 (73.0), n = 458 458 (72.5), n = 458 456 (72.5), n = 456 465 (70.9), n = 465
 Endline (N = 2544) (n (%) N) 454 (72.4), n = 454 461 (72.9), n = 461 477 (75.8), n = 477 470 (71.6), n = 470
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0344
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.09) 0.04 (− 0.04, 0.12) 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.08)
P-value   0.772 0.323 0.687
Self-efficacy     
General self-efficacy (score:0–10):     
 Baseline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 5.1 (2.6) n = 627 5.2 (2.5) n = 632 5.2 (2.6) n = 629 5.5 (2.6) n = 656
 Endline (N = 2544) (mean (SD) n) 5.7 (2.4) n = 627 5.6 (2.5) n = 632 6.6 (2.3) n = 629 6.3 (2.5) n = 656
Intra-cluster correlation coefficient 0.0444
Coefficient (95% CI) Reference − 0.16 (− 0.54, 0.23) 0.80 (0.37, 1.24) 0.22 (− 0.20, 0.64)
P-value   0.420  < 0.001 0.301
  1. The table reports post-intervention means for the control arm, and the estimated effect of the intent-to-treat for each study arm relative to the control arm. Difference-in-differences were estimated from regressions with girl-level fixed effects and robust standard errors accounting for clustering at the school level
  2. Higher scores equate to higher knowledge and more positive/equitable norms and attitudes
  3. αSchool engagement was only measured among respondents who were in school; at baseline all menstruating girls were in school, at endline 2432 girls were still in school