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Table 2 Variable definitions, JLFSY 2005–2010

From: Life expectations in early adolescence and the timing of first sex and marriage: evidence from a longitudinal survey in Ethiopia

Dependent variables (wave 3)
 First sex = 1 if first sex in a given life year and 0 otherwise
 First marriage = 1 if first marriage in a given life year and 0 otherwise
Independent variables
 Life expectations (wave 1, age 13–17)
  Career expectations: Standard normal index based on factor analysis of highest expected years of schooling and expected occupation coded according to the Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale
  Expected age at first marriage: Age at which respondents expected to marry
  Personal autonomy: Standard normal index based on factor analysis of responses to four questions regarding ability to make life decisions: 1. Could you decide to have a job that your parents do not approve of? 2. Could you marry a person whom your parents did not approve of? 3. Do you think you will decide who your future spouse will be? 4. If your parents chose a partner for you whom you did not want to marry, would you tell them so? High values correspond to greater influence over decisions
  Gender equality: Standard normal index based on factor analysis of responses to 10 statements on women and men’s roles: 1. A woman should always listen to her husband. 2. A husband should have the final say in all major family matters. 3. Marriage by abduction is acceptable. 4. There is nothing a woman can do if her husband has a mistress. 5. Female circumcision is a practice that should continue. 6. Normally a man should not have to do housework. 7. A woman could be mayor. 8. A wife should be allowed to request a divorce. 9. A women should be allowed to marry a man of her choice. 10. It is acceptable for females to buy condoms. In wave 1, the responses were agree or disagree. High values of the index correspond to more gender egalitarian attitudes
 School participation
  In school (time varying, waves 1, 2, and 3) = 1 if student in a given life year and 0 otherwise
  Membership in youth clubs (wave 1, age 13–17) = 1 if member of a youth club and 0 otherwise
 Family and community environment (wave 1, age 13–17)
  Religiosity: Standard normal index based on factor analysis of responses to five questions on religious practices: 1. In the last year, on religious days in which you should attend church/mosque, how often did you go? 2. In the last year, on religious days of fasting, how often did you fast? 3. Do you or have you ever received religious instruction outside of your home, for example Koranic school or Bible classes? 4. How often do you pray? 5. How important is religion to you? High values of the index correspond to higher levels of religious observance
  Parents’ desired age of daughter’s marriage: Average of the age at which the respondent thinks her father and her mother want her to marry
  Parents’ highest year of schooling: Highest year of schooling completed by father or mother
  Household wealth: Standard normal index based on factor analysis of ten household measures: owns radio, television, electric stove, bicycle, motorcycle, home; has electricity, protected source of drinking water, toilet, and non-dirt floor
  Female headed household = 1 if female household head and 0 otherwise