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Table 2 Sample characteristics

From: The effects of geographical accessibility to health facilities on antenatal care and delivery services utilization in Benin: a cross-sectional study

  Total South North
Variables Obs Mean S.D Obs Mean S.D Obs Mean S.D
Outcome variables
 Received any ANC 17,489 0.840 0.367 9659 0.920 0.271 7830 0.733 0.442
 Received ≥ 4 ANC 17,489 0.548 0.498 9659 0.684 0.465 7830 0.368 0.482
 Facility delivery 26,950 0.860 0.347 14,989 0.951 0.216 11,961 0.738 0.440
 Delivery by SBA 26,996 0.817 0.386 15,012 0.920 0.271 11,984 0.681 0.466
Main predictor
 Straight-line distance (km) 17,768 3.57 4.37 9750 2.26 2.08 8018 5.29 5.78
 Road network distance (km) 17,325 4.85 6.21 9394 3.14 3.29 7931 7.10 8.14
 Travel time by walk (minutes) 17,325 58.2 74.5 9394 37.7 39.5 7931 85.2 97.6
 Travel time by car (minutes) 17,325 8.1 11.8 9394 5.3 6.1 7931 11.8 15.8
 Altitude (meter) 18,018 171.4 148.2 10,087 63.0 64.6 7931 314.2 97.6
 Distance dummy: 5 km or more 17,768 0.197 0.397 9750 0.068 0.251 8018 0.367 0.482
Mothers' characteristics
 Age 18,105 29.3 6.8 10,087 29.6 6.6 8018 28.9 7.0
 Education
  No education 18,105 0.673 0.469 10,087 0.600 0.490 8018 0.777 0.416
  Primary 18,105 0.175 0.380 10,087 0.214 0.410 8018 0.121 0.326
  Secondary/Higher 18,105 0.151 0.358 10,087 0.186 0.389 8018 0.103 0.303
Households' characteristics
 Religion
  Muslim 18,105 0.286 0.452 10,087 0.085 0.279 8018 0.569 0.495
  Protestant 18,105 0.278 0.448 10,087 0.398 0.490 8018 0.109 0.312
  Catholic 18,105 0.252 0.434 10,087 0.300 0.458 8018 0.184 0.387
  Vodoum/other traditional 18,105 0.114 0.318 10,087 0.158 0.365 8018 0.053 0.223
  No religion/others 18,105 0.070 0.255 10,087 0.058 0.234 8018 0.085 0.280
 Asset
  Lowest 18,105 0.202 0.401 10,087 0.128 0.334 8018 0.306 0.461
  Lower middle 18,105 0.201 0.401 10,087 0.167 0.373 8018 0.250 0.433
  Middle 18,105 0.201 0.401 10,087 0.189 0.392 8018 0.217 0.412
  Upper middle 18,105 0.203 0.402 10,087 0.238 0.426 8018 0.154 0.361
  Highest 18,105 0.193 0.394 10,087 0.278 0.448 8018 0.073 0.260
Community's characteristics
 Ownership rate
  Bicycle 17,878 0.300 0.207 9977 0.227 0.175 7901 0.404 0.205
  Motorbike 17,878 0.624 0.177 9977 0.600 0.182 7901 0.658 0.163
 Round
  BDHS 2011/2012 18,105 0.499 0.500 10,087 0.560 0.496 8018 0.414 0.493
  BDHS 2017/2018 18,105 0.501 0.500 10,087 0.441 0.496 8018 0.586 0.493