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Table 4 Adaptations in service delivery by clinic status

From: Assessing differences in contraceptive provision through telemedicine among reproductive health providers during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States

Independent variables Outcomes:
Telemedicine   Curbside contraceptive services Mail-order Prescribing DMPA-SQ
aRR 95% CI aRR 95% CI aRR 95% CI aRR 95% CI
Clinic status         
 Open onsite (reference)
 Closed onsite 1.12 [0.98–1.28] 0.63* [0.39–1.00] 1.83*** [1.37–2.44] 3.85*** [2.40–6.18]
Practice setting         
 Primary care/Health Department. (Reference)
 Family planning 0.77*** [0.67–0.87] 3.02*** [1.99–4.58] 0.96 [0.74–1.25] 1.49 [0.97–2.29]
 Youth/School/College 0.99 [0.90–1.08] 2.01** [1.28–3.15] 0.79 [0.59–1.07] 0.85 [0.47–1.52]
 Abortion 0.50* [0.26–0.93] 0.38 [0.05–3.07] 0.56 [0.24–1.29] 4.46** [1.61–12.31]
 Hospital/Other 0.82* [0.68–0.98] 0.83 [0.38–1.84] 0.82 [0.50–1.36] 1.01 [0.29–3.50]
Region         
 Northeast (Reference)
 Midwest 1.04 [0.91–1.19] 3.45** [1.41–8.45] 0.82 [0.52–1.30] 1.39 [0.41–4.69]
 Southeast 0.80* [0.67–0.96] 2.67* [1.14–6.24] 0.72 [0.50–1.03] 2.16 [0.83–5.66]
 West 1.05 [0.93–1.18] 3.19** [1.36–7.52] 1.03 [0.74–1.45] 1.08 [0.34–3.41]
 Southwest 0.95 [0.82–1.09] 2.27 [0.95–5.44] 0.63* [0.42–0.95] 1.12 [0.38–3.31]
Time of survey         
 April–August 2020 (Reference)
 Sept 2020– Jan 2021 0.97 [0.89–1.06] 1.03 [0.76–1.39] 1.27 [0.94–1.70] 1.37 [0.79–2.38]
Clinic funding         
 Not title X or DK (Reference)
 Title X 1.05 [0.96–1.16] 1.88*** [1.38–2.55] 1.24 [0.98–1.58] 2.53*** [1.55–4.11]
Patient volume         
 Smaller clinic (Reference)
 Larger clinic 1.10* [1.00–1.21] 1.10 [0.83–1.45] 1.16 [0.93–1.45] 1.22 [0.82–1.82]
Telemedicine pre-pandemic        
 Offered at clinic 1.24*** [1.16–1.32]       
 Observations 649   648   570   649  
  1. Standard errors are clustered by clinic. Coefficients for dummy variables representing missing data are not displayed
  2. aRR adjusted relative risk ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. *p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001