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Table 5 Challenges in providing contraceptive services by clinic status

From: Assessing differences in contraceptive provision through telemedicine among reproductive health providers during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States

Independent variables Outcomes: clinic faced challenges in:
Seeing new patients Offering contraceptive
counseling
Offering the full range
of methods
Offering care to marginalized patients
aRR 95% CI aRR 95% CI aRR 95% CI aRR 95% CI
Clinic status         
 Open onsite + telemedicine (Reference)
 Open onsite + no telemedicine 0.96 [0.85–1.09] 1.02 [0.85–1.23] 1.00 [0.83–1.22] 0.82 [0.64–1.04]
 Closed onsite + telemedicine 1.14** [1.05–1.23] 1.19* [1.03–1.36] 1.37*** [1.20–1.57] 1.23* [1.01–1.49]
 Closed onsite + no telemedicine 1.08 [0.95–1.23] 1.06 [0.80–1.40] 0.88 [0.63–1.24] 1.04 [0.59–1.86]
Practice setting         
 Primary care/Health Department (Reference)
 Family planning 0.92 [0.80–1.05] 1.05 [0.87–1.27] 1.06 [0.90–1.24] 0.90 [0.73–1.12]
 Youth/School/College 1.01 [0.90–1.13] 1.16 [0.97–1.39] 1.00 [0.84–1.19] 0.95 [0.79–1.13]
 Abortion 1.17** [1.05–1.30] 1.32 [0.99–1.76] 1.01 [0.74–1.39] 1.28 [0.87–1.89]
 Hospital/Other 0.99 [0.85–1.14] 1.06 [0.82–1.36] 1.15 [0.94–1.40] 1.02 [0.76–1.37]
Region         
 Northeast (Reference)
 Midwest 1.00 [0.91–1.10] 0.86 [0.69–1.06] 0.87 [0.69–1.08] 1.04 [0.79–1.36]
 Southeast 0.92 [0.83–1.02] 0.82* [0.69–0.97] 0.92 [0.78–1.09] 0.86 [0.66–1.11]
 West 0.90* [0.83–0.99] 0.88 [0.74–1.05] 0.78** [0.66–0.93] 1.08 [0.86–1.36]
 Southwest 0.91 [0.83–1.00] 0.96 [0.81–1.13] 0.75* [0.60–0.93] 1.03 [0.79–1.33]
Time of survey         
 April–August 2020 (Reference)
 Sept 2020–Jan 2021 1.00 [0.93–1.09] 1.04 [0.90–1.19] 0.98 [0.85–1.12] 1.05 [0.86–1.27]
Clinic funding         
 Not title X or DK (Reference)
 Title X 0.96 [0.88–1.04] 1.06 [0.93–1.20] 0.98 [0.85–1.12] 1.02 [0.86–1.20]
Patient volume         
 Smaller clinic (Reference)
 Larger  clinic 0.98 [0.91–1.05] 0.80*** [0.70–0.91] 0.89* [0.80–1.00] 0.93 [0.80–1.09]
Observations 649   647   630   646  
  1. Standard errors are clustered by clinic. Coefficients for dummy variables representing missing data are not displayed
  2. aRR adjusted relative risk ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. *p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001