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Table 1 Participant characteristics (N = 690)

From: Factors influencing adolescents’ healthy pregnancy preparation behavior: a cross-sectional gender comparison applying the health belief model

Variables Total Boys
(n = 416)
Girls
(n = 274)
95% CI χ2 or t(P)
n (%) or M ± SD Lower Upper
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age (years) 16.8 ± 1.0 16.9 ± 1.0 16.8 ± 0.9    0.73 (0.467)
  15 66 (9.6) 46 (11.0) 20 (7.3)   
  16 179 (25.9) 99 (23.8) 80 (29.2)   
  17 245 (35.5) 138 (33.2) 107 (39.1)   
  18 200 (29.0) 133 (32.0) 67 (24.4)   
 Religion       0.07 (0.787)
  No 439 (63.6) 263 (63.2) 176 (64.2)   
  Yes 251 (36.4) 153 (36.8) 98 (35.8)   
 Academic achievement       20.45 (< 0.001)
  Dissatisfied 166 (24.1) 78 (18.8) 88 (32.1)   
  Neither dissatisfied nor satisfied 329 (47.7) 201 (48.3) 128 (46.7)   
  Satisfied 195 (28.2) 137 (32.9) 58 (21.2)   
 Living condition       0.03 (0.870)
  Without family 49 (7.1) 29 (7.0) 20 (7.3)   
  With family 641 (92.9) 387 (93.0) 254 (92.7)   
 Economic status       2.28 (0.320)
  Low 47 (6.8) 33 (7.9) 14 (5.1)   
  Middle 515 (74.6) 309 (74.3) 206 (75.2)   
  High 128 (18.6) 74 (17.8) 54 (19.7)   
Health behavior characteristics
 Alcohol consumption experience      2.15 (0.143)
  No 392 (56.8) 227 (54.6) 165 (60.2)   
  Yes 298 (43.2) 189 (45.4) 109 (39.8)   
 Smoking experience       14.32 (< 0.001)
  No 553 (80.1) 314 (75.5) 239 (87.2)   
  Yes 137 (19.9) 102 (24.5) 35 (12.8)   
 HPV vaccine       15.42 (< 0.001)
  No 636 (92.2) 397 (95.4) 239 (87.2)   
  Yes 54 (7.8) 19 (4.6) 35 (12.8)   
Sex-related behavior characteristics
 Sexual education experience      0.39 (0.530)
  No 133 (19.3) 77 (18.5) 56 (20.4)   
  Yes 557 (80.7) 339 (81.5) 218 (79.6)   
 Sexual experience       0.15 (0.700)
  No 633 (91.7) 383 (92.1) 250 (91.2)   
  Yes 57 (8.3) 33 (7.9) 24 (8.8)   
Importance of and confidence in healthy pregnancy preparation behavior
 Importance
(range 0–100)
92.25 ± 10.09 92.02 ± 10.55 92.60 ± 9.36 − 2.12 0.96 − 0.74 (0.459)
 Confidence
(range 0–100)
87.98 ± 13.39 88.22 ± 13.31 87.61 ± 13.53 − 1.44 2.66 0.58 (0.559)
Gender equality related to pregnancy and birth
 Women’s responsibility 12.51 ± 3.75 13.12 ± 3.58 11.59 ± 3.82 0.97 2.09 5.35 (< 0.001)
 Men’s responsibility 15.33 ± 3.63 15.31 ± 3.27 15.37 ± 4.13 − 0.61 0.50 − 0.20 (0.843)
HBM constructs about healthy pregnancy preparation behavior
 Perceived susceptibility 7.23 ± 2.62 7.37 ± 2.83 7.09 ± 2.27 − 0.12 0.68 1.37 (0.172)
 Perceived severity 13.71 ± 1.93 13.60 ± 2.03 13.87 ± 1.76 − 0.56 0.02 − 1.80 (0.072)
 Perceived benefits 13.67 ± 1.90 13.76 ± 1.93 13.53 ± 1.84 − 0.05 0.53 1.61 (0.109)
 Perceived barriers 7.30 ± 2.14 7.27 ± 2.33 7.35 ± 1.82 − 0.41 0.24 − 0.52 (0.602)
 Likelihood of healthy pregnancy preparation behavior 13.54 ± 2.06 13.56 ± 2.03 13.53 ± 2.11 − 0.28 0.35 0.22 (0.824)
  1. M mean; SD standard deviation; CI confidence interval; HPV human papillomavirus; HBM health belief model