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Table 2 Fixed and random effect analysis of factors associated with unmet needs for contraception

From: Unmet need for contraception and its associated factors among women in Papua New Guinea: analysis from the demographic and health survey

Variable Model O Model I
AOR [95% CI]
Model II
AOR [95% CI]
Model III
AOR [95% CI]
Fixed effect results
Women’s age (years)
15–19   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
20–24   1.02 [0.69,1.52]   1.04 [0.70,1.55]
25–29   0.69 [0.45,1.06]   0.70 [0.46,1.08]
30–34   0.68 [0.44,1.06]   0.70 [0.45,1.09]
35–39   0.70 [0.44,1.12]   0.73 [0.45,1.17]
40–44   0.82 [0.53,1.29]   0.87 [0.55,1.37]
45–49   0.64 [0.39,1.03]   0.67 [0.41,1.08]
Level of education
No education   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Primary   0.92 [0.76,1.12]   0.97 [0.80,1.18]
Secondary   0.78 [0.61,1.00]   0.87 [0.67,1.13]
Higher   1.09 [0.48,2.45]   1.27 [0.56,2.88]
Marital status
Married   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Cohabiting   1.28* [1.03,1.60]   1.25* [1.01,1.56]
Current working status
No   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Yes   1.08 0.93,1.26]   1.09 [0.94,1.28]
Parity     
Zero   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
1–3 births   1.57** [1.19,2.09]   1.57** [1.18,2.08]
4 or more births   1.64** [1.15,2.33]   1.60** [1.13,2.27]
Frequency of watching television
Not at all   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Less than once a week   0.80 [0.56,1.14]   0.86 [0.60,1.23]
At least once a week   0.90 [0.66,1.23]   1.01 [0.73,1.39]
Frequency of listening to radio
Not at all   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Less than once a week   0.79 [0.61,1.02]   0.80 [0.61,1.04]
At least once a week   0.78 [0.56,1.07]   0.80 [0.59,1.10]
Frequency of reading newspaper or magazine
Not at all   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Less than once a week   1.11 [0.85,1.44]   1.13 [0.86,1.49]
At least once a week   0.77 [0.53,1.12]   0.81 [0.56,1.17]
Heard of family planning from newspaper or magazine last few months
No   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Yes   1.02 [0.69,1.50]   1.05 [0.71,1.54]
Heard of family planning from television last few months
No   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Yes   1.02 [0.61,1.71]   1.05 [0.63,1.75]
Heard of family planning from radio last few months
No   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Yes   0.93 [0.72,1.21]   0.94 [0.73,1.22]
Person who usually decides on respondent’s health care
Respondent alone   1 [1.00,1.00]   1 [1.00,1.00]
Respondent and partner   0.87 [0.72,1.06]   0.86 [0.71,1.04]
Partner alone   1.37* [1.08,1.74]   1.35* [1.06,1.71]
Someone else or other   1.20 [0.55,2.61]   1.19 [0.55,2.57]
Wealthindex
Poorest    1 [1.00,1.00] 1 [1.00,1.00]
Poorer    0.85 [0.67,1.08] 0.86 [0.68,1.10]
Middle    0.73** [0.58,0.91] 0.75* [0.60,0.94]
Richer    0.65*** [0.51,0.83] 0.69** [0.53,0.90]
Richest    0.51*** [0.40,0.66] 0.59*** [0.43,0.80]
Sex of household head
Male    1 [1.00,1.00] 1 [1.00,1.00]
Female    0.86 [0.68,1.09] 0.87 [0.68,1.10]
Place of residence
Urban    1 [1.00,1.00] 1 [1.00,1.00]
Rural    1.15 [0.94,1.42] 1.08 [0.87,1.33]
Region     
Southern region    1 [1.00,1.00] 1 [1.00,1.00]
Highlands region    1.07 [0.89,1.29] 1.05 [0.86,1.27]
Momase region    1.35** [1.11,1.64] 1.33** [1.09,1.63]
Islands region    1.08 [0.88,1.33] 1.10 [0.89,1.36]
Random effect model
PSU variance (95% CI) 0.398 [0.299, 0.531] 0.343 [0.251, 0.471] 0.328 [0.237, 0.453] 0.322 [0.232, 0.447]
ICC 0.1079641 0.0945348 0.0905374 .0891375
Wald chi-square Reference 115.40 (< 0.001) 86.56 (< 0.001) 169.18 (< 0.001)
Model fitness
Log-likelihood − 4839.6637 − 4755.7949 − 4799.8545 − 4735.382
AIC 9683.327 9565.59 9621.709 9542.764
N 7950 7950 7950 7950
Number of clusters 763 763 763 763
  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets; AOR adjusted odds ratios, CI confidence interval; 1 = Reference category; PSU primary sampling unit; ICC  intra-class correlation, AIC  Akaike’s Information Criterion. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001