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Table 1 Comparison of sociodemographic characteristics and gynecological-obstetric history among indigenous adolescents and nonindigenous adolescents, indigenous adult women, and nonindigenous adult women

From: Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among indigenous adolescents in Guatemala: a cohort study

Variables Adolescents (10–19y) Adult Women (> 19y) Total
Indigenous (1) Nonindigenous (2) (1) vs. (2) Indigenous (3) (1) vs. (3) Nonindigenous (4) (1) vs. (4)
n (%) n (%) P-value n (%) P-value n (%) P-value
819 (10.18) 813 (10.10) 3324 (41.30) 3092 (38.42) 8048
Mean (standard deviation) of age 17.52 (1.40) 17.48 (1.40)   27.15 (5.61)   26.70 (5.35)   
School levela < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001 8048
 None 30 (3.66) 32 (3.94)   269 (8.09)   169 (5.47)   
 Elementary (0–7y) 473 (57.75) 362 (44.63)   1882 (56.62)   1318 (42.63)   
 High school (7–12y) 310 (37.85) 399 (49.08)   1060 (31.89)   1432 (46.31)   
 University (> 12y) 6 (0.73) 20 (2.46)   113 (3.40)   173(5.60)   
Marriage statusa 0.148   < 0.001   < 0.001 8048
 With partner or married 692 (84.49) 676 (83.15)   3084 (92.78)   2760 (89.26)   
 Without partner 125(15.26) 129 (15.87)   231 (6.95)   316 (10.22)   
 Other 2 (0.24) 8 (0.98)   9 (0.27)   16 (0.52)   
Previous diabetesb 1.000   1.000   1.000 8040
 No 818 (99.88) 812 (100)   3317 (99.82)   3084 (99.84)   
 Yes 1 (0.12) 0 (0)   6 (0.18)   5 (0.16)   
 Missing 3 1   1   3   8
Previous hypertensionb 1.000   1.000   0.742 8043
 No 816 (99.63) 809 (99.75)   3310(99.61)   3080 (99.68)   
 Yes 3 (0.37) 2 (0.25)   13 (0.39)   10 (0.32)   
 Missing 0 2   1   2   5
Previous preeclampsiab 0.686   0.290   0.083 8043
 No 817 (99.76) 809 (99.63)   3301 (99.37)   3065 (99.19)   
 Yes 2 (0.24) 3 (0.37)   21 (0.63)   25 (0.81)   
 Missing 0 1   2   2   5
Previous eclampsiab   0.590   1.000 8044
 No 819 (100) 812 (100)   3318 (99.85)   3 087 (99.90)   
 Yes (0) (0)   5 (0.15)   3 (0.10)   
 Missing 0 1   1   2   4
Previous cardiopathyb 0.248   1.000   0.217 8040
 No 818 (100) 810 (99.75)   3319 (99.88)   3079 (99.74)   
 Yes (0) 2 (0.25)   4 (0.12)   8 (0.26)   
 Missing 1 1   1   5   8
Previous pregnanciesa 0.440   < 0.001   < 0.001 8048
 0 638 (77.90) 654 (80.44)   1000 (30.08)   933 (30.71)   
 1–3 176 (21.49) 154 (18.94)   2033 (61.16)   1930 (62.42)   
 > 4 5 (0.61) 5 (0.62)   291 (8.75)   229 (7.41)   
Previous birthsa 0.608   < 0.001   < 0.001 8018
 0 657 (80.71) 664 (82.08)   1064 (32.15)   1018 (33.00)   
 1–2 149 (18.30) 140 (17.31)   1731(52.30)   1623 (52.61)   
 ≥ 3 8 (0.98) 5 (0.62)   515 (15.56)   444 (14.39)   
 Missing 5 4   14   7   30
Previous c-sectiona 0.947   < 0.001   < 0.001 8048
 0 753 (94.01) 746 (93.72)   2554 (78.03)   2352 (77.78)   
 1 45 (5.62) 47 (5.90)   555 (16.96)   521 (17.23)   
 ≥ 2 3 (0.37) 3 (0.38)   164 (5.01)   151 (4.99)   
 Missing 18 17   51   68   154
Planned pregnancya 0.038   0.135   < 0.001 8048
 No 481 (58.73) 436 (53.63)   1856 (55.84)   1465(47.38)   
 Yes 338 (41.27) 377 (46.37)   1468 (44.16)   1627 (52.62)   
Previous contraceptiona 0.420   0.007   0.013 8048
 No 779 (95.12) 780 (95.94)   3072 (92.42)   2865 (92.66)   
 Yes 40 (4.88) 33 (4.06)   252 (7.58)   227 (7.34)   
  1. The reference group is always indigenous adolescents (Group 1)
  2. y: years
  3. Analyzed with: aChi square test, bFisher’s Exact test