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Table 3 Characteristics of studies with the theme ‘cross-cultural beliefs

From: Latinx individuals’ knowledge of, preferences for, and experiences with prenatal genetic testing: a scoping review

Author (year) Data collection method (n = sample size; all sample sizes are restricted to Latina patients except the provider sample) [genetic testing type] Nativity Country of origin Findings [validated measurement tool]
Qualitative
Griffiths (2008) [22] Patient interview(n = 33) [AFP, Amnio] Foreign born and US born Mexico [Marin Short Acculturation Scale] (1) Birth defects were viewed to be a result of substance use or God’s Will. (2) Diet, low levels of stress, not getting a fright, and engaging in cultural health practices were viewed as ways to avoid birth defects
Markens (2010) [38] Patient interview (n = 147) [AFP, Amnio] Foreign born and US born Mexico (1) Participants took religion into consideration when deciding whether to undergo genetic testing
Barragan (2011) [48] Patient interview (n = 15) Foreign born and US born Mexico [Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II] (1) Three of the participants knew someone with down syndrome; two of these participants believed in cultural reasons for down syndrome and specifically believed the abnormality resulted from a strong emotional reaction during pregnancy
Hurst (2011) [49] Patient interview (n = 11) Not assessed Not assessed (1) Participants believed that traits were passed down one of four ways all being weighted equal; behaviors during pregnancy, genetics, family and community childbearing practices, and God’s will. (2) Behaviors were the primary focus, as they can be controlled whereas genes cannot be altered. (3) Participants comfortably and appropriately intertwined familial and cultural beliefs with medicine to understand genetics and heritability
Seth (2011) [47] Patient interview (n = 11) [Amnio] Foreign born Not assessed (1) Faith was present in participants who accepted and declined amniocentesis. (2) The perceived risks of the procedure influenced the decision of whether to undergo amniocentesis
Garza (2019) [27] Patient interview (n = 20) [General PGT] Foreign born Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (1) After the genetic counseling sessions with a Spanish-speaking genetic counselor, participants were able to recall genetic information, including vocabulary terms. (2) Immigration related stressors impact general prenatal care and have unique implications for PGT. (3) Participants’ faith played a role in their PGT decisions
Page (2021) [17] Patient interview (n = 10) [General PGT] US born Not assessed [REAL-G Genetic Literacy Scale] (1) Participants reported religiosity did not influence their genetic testing decisions
Quantitative
Learman (2003) [40] Patient interview (n = 220) [General PGT] Foreign born and US born Not assessed (1) Participants' faith did not influence PGT decisions. (2) In comparison to Black, Asian, and White participants, Latina participants were more likely to state that their religious leader would influence their PGT decisions, less likely to be influenced by family members when making PGT decisions, and more likely to state that in their culture they learn to accept what is given
Mixed methods
Mittman (1998) [26] Patient interview (n = 826); observation (n = not disclosed) [Amnio; CVS] Foreign born and US born Not assessed (1) Participants viewed illness from a cultural lens rather than from a scientific lens. (2) Risk perception of the possibility of a genetic abnormality was influenced by personal experiences and family history rather than scientific data. (3) Linguistically and culturally tailored genetic counseling is useful as participants often made genetic testing decisions based on culture rather than genetic knowledge. (4) A genetic counseling session facilitated by a genetic counselor and a cultural broker led to an increase in genetic knowledge
Press (1998) [28] Patient interview (n = 75); chart review (n = 298) [AFP] Foreign born and US born Mexico [Marin Short Acculturation Scale] (1) Spanish speaking Latina participants did not view testing as a routine part of prenatal care. (2) Religiously was not associated with genetic testing decisions in Latina participants
Browner (1999b) [32] Patient interview (n = 147); chart review (n = 379) [Amnio] Foreign born and US born Mexico (3) Religiosity was not predictive of amniocentesis uptake
Browner (2000b) [37] Patient interview (n = 147) [AFP, Amnio] Foreign born and US born Mexico [Marin Short Acculturation Scale] (1) Participants combined scientific and lay knowledge to understand genetic test results. (2) Religiosity did not predict amniocentesis uptake. (3) Participants thought heredity could be altered through prayer and that the fetus could be altered through non-medical intervention. (4) Participants who declined amniocentesis engaged in an alternate intervention (prayer, reduce physical activity) to help the fetus
  1. AFP positive alpha-fetoprotein, CVS  chorionic villus sampling, Amnio  amniocentesis, NIPT  non-invasive prenatal testing